Thursday, March 26, 2020


1. “I am not yet born; O hear me.”—What does the poet wants to say?

 Here in the poem “Prayer Before Birth” by Louis MacNeice, the unborn child requests the God to keep bloodsucking bat or rat or other harmful animal or spirit away from the child when he will be born.

2. “I am not yet born, console me.”—Why does the unborn child demand consolation before birth from God?

 The unborn child fears that society or human may divide him in the name of race, religion with walls or the men may force him to tell lie or men may force him to play with blood. And all these will give him pain. So he demands consolation from the God.

3. “I am not yet born; provide me”—What does the unborn child want to be provided?

 The unborn child wants from the God water to bathe, grass to play on them, trees to talk, bird to chirp for poet and divine light to guide and remove darkness from his mind.

4. “…….. a white light/ in the back of my mind to guide me”—Explain the line.

 The unborn child seeks white light I.e. light of knowledge that will perish his mind’s darkness i.e. superstition, ego, malice, division of creed etc. and that will guide him from wrong way to right way in life.

5. “I am not yet born; forgive me”—Why does the unborn child want forgiveness?

 The unborn child knows very well that when he will be born, he will have to commit sins and then his words, thoughts will be crooked. Society probably will force him to commit suicide. So, in advance, the unborn child seeks forgiveness from the God.

6. “……. My words / when they speak me, my thoughts when they think me”—Explain.

 The unborn child is sure that the society will speak to him roughly or will think of him badly. He doubts that at that time he will not able to control his own words, thoughts against them.

7. “I am not yet born; rehearse me”—Why does the unborn child ask the God to rehearse him?

 The unborn child knows very well that when he will be born, he will have to endure the old men’s lecture, officer’s temper, beloved’s laughter, children’s curse and even the beggar’s refusal. So before birth, the child wants from the God to rehearse to face them.

8. “I am not yet born; O fill me”—What does the unborn child demand from the God?

 The poet demands from the God enough strength so that he can face the evil force that will take away his humanity and force him to join battle field with lethal arms. With that strength, he also wants to go against them who will try to abolish his entity.

9. “……..would dragoon me into lethal automaton/ would make me a cog in a machine …..”—Explain the line. 

 The unborn child knows that when he will be born, the war-monger will surely force him to be a part of deadly war with lethal arms whether he wants it or not. So, he seeks enough strength to go against them.

10. What does the unborn child ask for at the very end of the poem?

/ “Let them not make me a stone and let them not spill me.
Otherwise kill me.”-Explain.

 At the very end of the poem “Prayer Before Birth”, the unborn child wants that he should be given proper scope to live as a human being in peace and if the God cannot keep the child’s request, the unborn child wants himself to be killed before his birth.

11. “Let not the man who is beast or who thinks he is God/ Come near me”—Explain.

 The unborn child requests the God to keep away two types of men from him when he will be born—first type is those men who are like beast, who are tyrant and second type is those who are so arrogant that they think themselves God. 


1. “She dwelt among the untrodden ways”—Who dwelt among untrodden ways? How did she lived there?

 A beautiful, maiden girl named Lucy lived among untrodden ways.

 She lived there alone. None knew her and even none knew when she died.

2. Who was Lucy?

 Lucy was probably an imaginary girl whom poet Wordsworth loved very much and who had died young. 

3. How many poems did Wordsworth write on Lucy?

 Poet Wordsworth wrote five poems on Lucy.

4. Where did poet’s beloved/ Lucy live?

 Lucy lived in a solitary place beside the river Dove.

5. Which river is mentioned in this poem and why?

 William Wordsworth mentioned River Dove in this poem. 

 River Dove is considered as holy river. In order to state his beloved’s virginity and purity, the poet mentions this river.

6. “A Maid whom there were none to praise”—Who is referred to “Maid” here? Why were there none to praise her beauty?

 Here “Maid” refers to a beautiful, maiden girl named Lucy whom poet Wordsworth loved very much and who had died young.

 There were none to praise that girl’s beauty because she lived in a solitary place that was hidden from the eye of people.

7. With whom was Wordsworth’s beloved (Lucy) compared to?

 Wordsworth compared his beloved (Lucy) to violet flower that bloomed in unseen places and Venus that shined more than other stars in the sky.

8. “......Oh, / The difference to me!”—About whom has this remark been made? Explain the line.

 This remark has been made about Lucy who was probably an imaginary girl whom poet Wordsworth loved very much and who had died young. 

 According to the poet, none cared, noticed, loved that girl and that girl had died with her unsung beauty; but nobody knew that. But the poet expressed his immense love for her and to him that girl is special and extra-ordinary one.

9. “But she is in her grave”—Who is in the grave?

 Poet’s beloved Lucy is in the grave.

10. “Fair as star, when only one
  Is shining in the sky”—who is compared to a star? Which star is referred to here and why?

 Poet’s beloved Lucy is compared to a star. 

 Here Venus is referred to the mentioned star. 

 According to Greek mythology, Venus is goddess of love. For this reason, poet has compared his beloved to Venus. Besides, in the night sky, Venus is the brightest among the stars.

11. “A violet by a mossy stone”—Who is compared to a violet flower and why?

 Wordsworth compared his beloved (Lucy) to violet flower that bloomed in unseen places.

 A violet flower is beautiful but none cares it. Similarly, poet’s beloved’s beauty is seen, admired by none. So the poet compares her to a violet flower.

12. “Half hidden from the eye”—Who is half hidden and why?

 Poet’s beloved Lucy is half hidden because she lives in a solitary land beside the river Dove where nobody goes even nobody notices her.


1. Who were the Burnell children?

 Isabel, Lottie and Kezia were the Burnell children.

2. Who were the Kelveys?

 Kelveys were Lil and Else.

3. Who gifted the doll’s house? Who received the doll’s house?

 Mrs. Hay gifted the doll’s house to Burnell children.

 Burnell children received the doll’s house.

4. Who carried the doll’s house in the courtyard and how was it put?

 Pat and the carter carried the doll’s house in the courtyard and it was put on two wooden boxes.

5. What were the difference between the doll’s house and the real house?

 In a real house there remained a door for each room in the house. But in the doll’s house there was only one front door through which the inside of every room could be noticed.

6. Who was pat?

 Pat was the driver of Burnell family.

7. Where was the doll’s house placed and why?

 The doll’s house was placed in the courtyard of Burnell’s house because it was too large to carry into house and they thought that the smell of paint would have gone off.

8. How were the colours of the house?

 House was painted in oily spinach green, picked out with bright yellow. Its two chimneys were painted in red and white colour. The door had yellow varnish on it and the tiny porch was coloured in yellow.

9. Who opened the doll’s house and how?

 Pat opened the doll’s house with a penknife.

10. How many rooms were there in the doll’s house?

 There were five rooms in the house—one drawing room, one kitchen, one dining room and two bedrooms.

11. What were into the little hall of doll’s house?

 There were a hat-stand and two umbrellas into the little hall of doll’s house.

12. Who was Kezia? What did he like most in that doll’s house?

 Kezia was the youngest among Burnell children. She liked most a lamp in that doll’s house.

13. How was the lamp in the doll’s house?

 The lamp looked real and inside it looked like oil that moved when lamp was shaken.

14. Who were the inhabitants of the doll’s house? / How many dolls were in the doll’s house?

 A father doll, a mother doll and their two little children were the inhabitants of the doll’s house.

15. Why would Isabel tell other schoolmates about the doll’s house? / “I am to tell”—Who will tell and what will she tell? / What did Isabel say before to her sisters going to school?

 Isabel selected herself to tell their schoolmates about the doll’s house because she was eldest and she thought herself always right.

16. How did they decide to invite their mates to show the doll’s house?

 To show the doll’s house, Burnell children decided to invite two friends at a time and they would not be offered tea at all.

17. When did they decide to tell others at school about the doll’s house? Where did they gather during playtime?

 They decided to tell others about the doll’s house during tiffin/ playtime.

 During playtime they gathered under a huge Pine tree at the side of the playground.

18. Who were not allowed everywhere? / Who remained always out of the friend circle? / “….Stayed outside the ring the two……”—About whom was it said?

 Two Kelveys children- Lil and Else were not allowed everywhere.

19. Why did everyone ignore the Kelveys?

 Kelveys’ mother was a poor washer-woman and their father was supposed to be in jail. So everyone ignored them, even did not speak to them.

20. Which families’ children went to school?

 Children from the family of milkman, judge, doctor, shopkeeper went to school?

21. How was the dress of Lil?

 Lil’s dress was made of green art-serge table cloth of Burnells with red plush sleeves from the Logan’s curtain. She got her hat from postmistress Miss Lecky.

22. How was the dress of Else?

 Little Else’s dress was a white one, looked like a nightgown and she wore a pair of boy’s boot.

23. How did Else express her demand to her elder sister Lil?

 Whenever Else wanted anything, little Else gave a tug, a twitch and Lil understood everything.

24. “You have forgetting the lamp”—Who said this and to whom?

 The youngest among the Burnells children, Kezia said this to Isabel.

25. What did the rich children eat during tiffin hour in school?

 The rich kids ate thick mutton sandwiches and big slabs of johnny cake with butter.

26. What did the poor Kelveys eat in school?

 The Kelveys ate jam sandwiches out of newspaper soaked with large red blobs.

27. Why did the aunt Beryl scold Kezia? /”Wicked, disobedient little girl”—Who scolded Kezia and why?

 Aung Beryl scolded Kezia because she invited Kelveys in their house to show the doll’s house.

28. What did Kelveys children do when Aunt Beryl scolded them?

 When Aunt Beryl scolded the Kelveys children for entering Burnells’ house, they immediately somehow managed to flee away from the Burnells’ courtyard like chicken.

29. Where did the Lil and Else went fleeing away from Burnell’s house?

 Fleeing away from Burnell’s house, the two children Lil and Else sat down to rest on a big red drain pipe by the side of road.

30. Why were all girls of school friendly with Isabel?

 All girls of the schools were friendly with Isabel because she owned a beautiful doll’s house and only her friends would be allowed to see that.

31. Who invited the Kelveys to see the doll’s house?

 Youngest among the Burnells children, Kezia invited the Kelveys to see the doll’s house.

32. “It seemed to smile to Kezia, to say, “I live here”—Explain.

 Only Kezia took interest in a lamp that was inside the doll’s house and to her, as if the lamp was smiling and saying that it lived there.

33. “I seen the little lamp”—Who is the speaker? Explain the line?

 Little Else Kelvey is the speaker.

 Unobtrusively, both the two Kelvey sister Lil and Kelvey saw the doll’s house with the consent of Kezia and this fact made Aunt Beryl angry. So the Kelveys fled away and then Else remarked that she had managed to see the beautiful lamp of doll’s house. It shows her difference from other girls and similarity to Kezia.

34. What did Aunt Beryl do when she noticed Kelveys were seeing the doll’s house?

 When she noticed Kelveys were seeing the doll’s house, she became very angry and scolded Kezia calling her wicked, disobedient girl for inviting them. She then drove away the Kelveys children from their house. 


1. “When I consider how my light is spent”—What is meant by ‘light’? How has the poet spent his light?

 Here ‘light’ means poet John Milton’s eyesight. 

 The poet has spent his light i.e. eyesight without utilising it properly in poetic works.

2. Why is the world dark to john Milton?

 The world is dark to John Milton because when he wrote this sonnet, he was totally blind.

3. How did the world seem to the poet when he wrote the sonnet?

 When Milton wrote the sonnet, the world seemed to him totally dark and wide.

4. “And that one talent……..”—What is meant by “talent”?

 Here talent has two meanings- one is God-gifted power to write poem and another meaning is money or wealth that is mentioned in Bible (Parable of Talents).

5. “And the one talent which is death to hide”—Why is that one talent death to hide?

 Here talent has two meanings—one is God-gifted power to write poem and another meaning is money or wealth that is mentioned in Bible (Parable of Talents). In Bible, one Lord gives money to his three servants to utilise them. But the third servant did not utilise that money and becoming angry, Lord killed the servant. Here the third servant is compared to the poet who, like him, did not utilise God’s talent. So, to hide it is similar to death.

6. Why is the talent within himself useless to the poem?

 To the poet, his talent is totally useless because now he is completely blind and he cannot utilize that talent in poetic creation.

7. Why would God chide/ scold the poet according to the poet?

 According to the poet, as he had not utilized God-gifted talent, God would chide him.

8. “My Soul more bent………… Maker”—What does poet’s soul desire? Who is the “Maker” here?

 Now the poet’s soul desires to serve the almighty God.

 Here “Maker” refers to God.

9. What does the poet doubt about God? / “Doth God exact day-labour, light denied—I fondly ask”- Explain.

 The poet doubts about the God that when he will stand in front of God, God will chide him for not utilising his talent and will demand his due duties.

10. Why does the poet think that God will chide him?

 The poet thinks that God will chide him for not utilising his gifted talent in poetic work when he had eyesight.

11. Who makes up John Milton’s doubt and what does he/it assures the poet?

 Patience makes up Milton’s doubt.

 Patience assures the poet that God will not demand any due duties from the poet because God has so many countless servants like the poet.

12. Who is the God’s best server?

 According to the patience, who obeys the orders of God perfectly, is the best server of God.

13. “His state is Kingly”—Whose state is Kingly?/ who is compared to the king here?

 Here in Milton’s Sonnet—19, God state is Kingly. / God is compare to the King here.

14. “They also serve……..”—Who also serve and whom?

 Here in Milton’s Sonnet—19, the men who have not served God yet but waiting for God’s order to perform duty, also serve God.

15. “Ere half my days…………”—Explain.

 Here the poet laments that half of his life has gone in vain because he has not done anything worthy in that half of his lifetime when he had eyesight. But it is sad to say that now the poet is blind.

16. How has the poet presented patience here?

 Here the poet personifies ‘patience’ and presented as the rescuer of the poet’s troubled mind. 


1. What is sonnet? 
The term sonnet has come from the Italian word ‘sonetto’, which means "little song". Sonnet is a type of poem that basically contains fourteen lines and follows a strict rhyme scheme and specific structure.

2. How many sonnets did Shakespeare write?
Shakespeare wrote 154 sonnets in two sequences. His first sonnet sequence included 126 sonnets which were addressed to his friend, probably William Herbert, the Earl of Pembroke and his second sonnet sequence included 28 sonnets which were addressed to a Dark Lady.

3. What is the rhyme scheme and structure of Shakespearean sonnet? 
Shakespearean sonnet has three quatrains and a concluding couplet. It follows “abab cdcd efef gg” rhyme scheme.

4. What is the prosodic name of sonnet no-18?
Sonnet no-18 is an example of iambic pentameter.

5. When was this sonnet published? 
This sonnet was published in 1609.

6. Whom has the poet addressed in this poem? 
In this poem the poet has addressed his friend, probably William Herbert, the Earl of Pembroke

7. Who is compared to the summer’s day? 
Poet’s beloved friend, probably William Herbert, the Earl of Pembroke is compared to the summer’s day.

8. How did the poet’s friend out do the summer’s day? 
The poet’s friend out did the summer’s day in beauty and personality.

9. What is the literary meaning of ‘thou art’? 
What type of words are these? ‘Thou art’ means ‘you are’. These are the archaic words.

10. Give some similar meanings of the word ‘temperate’. 
Some similar meanings of the word ‘temperate’ are serious, mild, harsh, constant, having personality.

11. What affects the buds of May? 
The rough wind affects the buds of May.

12. How does the poet underestimate the summer?
The poet underestimates the summer by saying that its validity is very short in respect of comparison to the poet’s friend.

13. What does the phrase ‘eye of heaven’ mean?
The phrase ‘eye of heaven’ means the sun, the source of all power of the earth.

14. How does the poet underestimate the sun?
Accroding to the poet, the sun may shine very hot and its complexion may be very golden but its hotness and golden colour sometime dim.

15. What is the poet’s observation on beauty of natural objects? 
The poet gets a realization that every natural object’s beauty is subjected to decay or decline.

16. How does every natural object lose its beauty?
Every natural object loses its beauty by misfortune or by the impact of time.

17. What does the phrase “eternal summer” mean?
The phrase “eternal summer” means the eternal youth and vigour of the poet’s friend.

18. What does the word “ow’st” mean? 
The word “ow’st” may mean “ownest” as well as “owest”. In Shakespeare’s time the words “own” and “owe” both had the similar meaning.

19. What possession does the poet’s friend own?
The poet’s friend owns the possession of eternal beauty.

20. Why will the death not able to brag the poet’s friend? 
The death not able to brag the poet’s friend as his friend will always be immortal in the lines of poet’s poetry.

21. How many days will poet’s poerty live on?
According to the poet, as long as men can breathe or eyes can see, so long his poetry will live on.

22. What does the word ‘shade’ signify? 
The word ‘shade’ signifies the ‘shadow of death’.

Significance of the lamp in the the doll's house.

               Answer: Writer Katherine mansfield has symbolically presented so many elements in the story Doll's House and the lamp is one one of the important symbolic element. Getting doll's house as a gift from Mrs Hay, Burnell children were very much amazed especially for the realistic elements of the house. But Kezia, the youngest of the Burnell children took interest only in a simple lamp situated in the middle of a dining table. When the eldest Burnell children Isabel was proudly describing the doll's house and its every object to her schoolmates, only Kezia insisted on describing the lamp. According to her, it was a perfect lamp and looked real.

                      Symbolically this lamp represents the working class of our society who sacrifices their labour to light up the upper class people. Here the lamp is against the capitalism. Though the labour class sell their labour only to make capitalist wealthy and radiant, their labour goes in vain. Nobody looks at the labour class or gives dignity to them. Only the capitalist gets respect just like in a house a lamp lights up the house and makes everything of the house visible and beautiful and that lamp's effort remains unsung while everyone praises the quality of other items. Here the irony lies. 

                  On the other hand, the lamp is a symbol of hope and with that hope, the writer wants the little character Kezia to perish the conflict of rich and poor, caste, creed of our society. Writer is hopeful that Kezia will able to give light in the darkness of prejudice just like a lamp eliminates the darkness of a room.

                     At the very end of the story, we see that Kezia allows little Else to see the doll's house especially its lamp and both the children realizes the same that an insignificant object like lamp may take an important role against social prejudice. Thus, writer Katherine Mansfield connects the lower class Else to upper class Kezia through a lamp. So the lamp is the symbol of connection, inclusivity and prejudice free society.


Ans: Kezia, the youngest daughter of the three Burnell children, is the unsung protagonist of the story Doll's House by Katherine Mansfield. The writer has profoundly characterized Kezia in this story. She is full of innocence under the symbolic reality of experience. She represents herself as an independent girl who always opposes the convention of thinking, social rule. Through the portrayal of such a character, writer symbolically tries to present the blind justification of social conformity /conflict. As the story starts, we are told that while two of her elder sisters admire the beauty realistic elements like bed, its sheet, red carpet etc of a gifted doll's house, Kezia's attention goes to a rather simple lamp. It reveals her innocence, impeccability. She tries to find out the faults of the house and perfection with its lamp. Only she loves the lamp while other two sisters give no importance to it. 

            She always goes against social convention. she displays it again when she decides to become friend with Kelvey children who are looked down upon, ignored, underestimated by all because Kelveys belong to a Poor and lower class washerwoman mother and convict father. Kezia challenges others' way of behaviour and asks her mother "Can't I ask the Kelveys was just once?". She is against the social conflict. And ultimately Kezia gets the chance and invites the Kelvey girls inside their house to show their doll's house. She disregards the tradition of society, fear of getting rebuked by elders, thoughts imposed on her by society. Thus Kezia establishes herself as a girl of independent mind, rational thoughts, and purity of heart.