Monday, August 31, 2020

Who was the Dairyman? How was his village according to Amal?



Answer: In the play The Post Office by R. N. Tagore, Dairyman was a curd-seller who sells curd wondering from one village to another village.

     That dairyman lived in a village that was situated beside Shamli river at the foot of the Panchmura hills. According to Amal, Dairyman's village was under some old big trees by the side of the red road by the Shamli river. Cattle always grazed on the slope of the hills. The village women wearing red sarees came and filled their earthen pitchers with water from the river and carried them on their heads when they returned home. Thus, Amal magnificently gave an imaginary description of Dairyman's village that proved completely real.


Who was Gaffer? Why was Madhav afraid of Gaffer? Who was Amal? What was the relation between Amal and Madhav?


Answer: Gaffer was a wonderer and he was acquainted with Madhav.

              Gaffer was a man who always tempted children to go outside by telling them different stories. Madhav's adopted boy Amal was suffering from chronicle diseases and doctor told him not to go out of the room. So, when Gaffer arrived Madhav's house, Madhav was getting afraid that he might be tempted to go outside.

         In the play The Post Office, writer Rabindranath Tagore had presented an orphan boy named Amal. He was a distant relation of Madhav's wife as village connection.


Significance of all characters in the play The Post Office.



Answer: Each and every character plays an important role in the play The Post Office and every character has different significance and inner meaning. The most important character Amal signifies a soul waiting for deliverance. Another character watchman symbolises time. That time is powerful and everything in this universe is under the clutch of time. It is clearly stated by him: My gong sounds to tell people; time waits for none but goes on forever. Thus, behind each and every apparent simplicity in dialogue, there remain different serious and deep meanings. Sudha who gathers flower symbolizes grace and sweetness. Madhav stands for a country common man of prosperity. The physician symbolises bookish knowledge that prevents man to achieve wisdom and true knowledge. Even the wicked village Headman plays an important role in this play. He stands for an authority full of pride with no legal power. Amal alone is an angelic creature apparently passive but highly creative through his imaginative perception. The play is a series of dialogue but is dialogue vibrates with meaning.



What was the significance of the blank letter given to Amal by the Headman?



Answer: In the Act -II of the play The Post Office by Rabindranath Tagore, Amal was waiting for King's letter when he was on the bed getting very ill. Then the Headman entered the room and handed over a blank Piece of paper to Amal saying that King had sent the letter. Amal did not understand this mockery and tried to read the letter. But he found nothing on the paper. He thought that it was due to his illness and asked the Headman to read the letter for him. Headman ridiculed Amal saying that King would arrive very soon and King would prefer to eat puffed rice in Amal's house. But within short time the mockery of the Headman became true and the King's herald and physician arrived Amal's house. So, it was clear that there may be a possibility even in a blank paper.


"Tell him, Sudha has not forgotten him"—who said this and to whom? Explain the context.



Answer: This remark was made by Sudha, the daughter of a flower collector. Sudha said this for the people who were present in the room of Madhav at the very end of the play.

Sudha once came to Amal's house because she wanted to give him flowers. At the time according to Kings physician Amal had fallen asleep. This remark allegorically meant that Amal had fallen into internal sleep i.e. death. Then Sudha put her flower which brought, into Amal's hand and told the physician to tell Amal that she had not forgotten Amal. It might be interpreted in this way that 'Sudha' always remained with man before and after his death. To Amal Sudha signified the taste of freedom.


Character of Amal.



= Character of Amal =

Answer: In the allegorical play The Post Office by R.N. Tagore, Amal is described as an orphan boy adopted by Madhab. That boy is suffering from a serious disease. The village doctor advises him not to go out in the sun and air as it may be harmful to him. So, he is kept confined in the room, but his imagination leads him to transcend the four walls of the room to the world of fiction. He always sits beside the window and converses with passer-by and longs to go with them to unfold the world. To Amal, world's everything has its special value and every human who may have not so much wealth, is important. The imagination of Amal describes the Dairy man's village and his profession so magnificently that it surprises the Dairyman. Being very little and getting assurance from Watchman, Amal becomes anxious to receive letter from the King. 

In act' II, Amal's physical condition becomes more deplorable. The Headman Mocks him giving him a blank letter. But ultimately the news from King Arrives and Royal physician comes to Amal, but Amal dies.

But the whole story has very deep inner meaning. Amal is an angelic being, highly creative through his imagination. Allegorically every soul seeks freedom. Here this freedom can be interpreted as the freedom of soul from human body into The Almighty. So, Amal is the soul longing for eternity.



BROAD QUESTIONS OF THE PLAY THE POST OFFICE BY R. N. TAGORE.

RABINDRA NATH TAGORE



























13. Theme of the play. 

Describe the religious condition of India as mentioned in the poet Dawn at Puri by Jayanta Mahapatra.


Once at dawn, the poet Jayanta Mahapatra visits the famous Puri sea beach. He hears the endless twittering of the crows that fills the lonely sea-beach. Suddenly he notices a human skull on the beach. This part of human body reminds the poet that while cremating human dead body, it is left unburnt by the funeral pyre. This skull is a symbol of poverty and pathetic economic condition of India. Also, it shows the spiritual handicap of so called Puri known for its spirituality. This skull also reveals the immortal truth of every human being as well as every natural object that everything is subjected to decay or death. How we know Puri as a religious place full of sacredness, calmness, purity and peace, that are literally truth; but like darkness beneath the lamp, Puri has become a skeleton without pulse of economic stability. Actually, the poet wants to present the hollowness of the Puri that is hidden under the cover of spirituality. Besides the presentation of suffering widows displays the real scene of religion.


“And suddenly breaks out of my hide Into the smoky blaze of a sullen solitary pyre …………………Twisting uncertainly like light on the shifting sands”---- Explain.



Answer: At the break of dawn as the poet looks at the single funeral pyre burning on the Puri sea beach and a sudden thought occurs to him that of his mother’s last wish. The phrase “And suddenly breaks out from my hide” echoes the thought springing out; just as the poet sprung out from his mother’s womb (hide). His aged mother wished that she be cremated at this particular place as it is the gateway to Heaven or the ‘Swargadwara’. It comes across very strongly to the poet. Rites and rituals are mandatory. However, perhaps, performing one’s mother’s last wish is far more important than these obligatory dictates of religion and doctrines of custom. It ‘dawns’ on him all of a sudden. The symbol of Dawn is thus a type of realization.


Condition of Indian widows described in the poem Dawn at Puri by Jayanta Mahapatra. (LINE 4—12 LINES)



While walking on the Puri sea beach at dawn, the poet Jayanta Mahapatra notices a gathering of widows on that holy sea-beach. The poet describes their appearance and their pathetic condition magnificently. They are dressed in white sari. The phrase “past the centers of their lives” signifies that they are at least middle aged woman. On the other hand it may be interpreted that they have crossed their most important portion i.e. center of their lives. They all are waiting to enter the Great Temple of Lord Jagannath to worship. They do it as a ritual only for their dead husband. Their eyes are described as austere as if they have no joy, no worldly longings or desire because they are widow. They seem very much helpless and now they are bound to suffer like a fish caught in a net having nothing to do to get rid of. They are gathering like the unimportant “ruined’ leprous shells leaning against one another” on the beach. The phrase “a mass of crouched faces without names” also suggests that those widows have no proper identity or individuality. They are presented as a common noun in the society.



“A skull in the holy sands tilts its empty country towards hunger.”—Explain the lines. / What picture do we get of our country?


Answer: These lines occur in Jayanta Mahapatra’s poem Dawn At Puri. Puri is the name of a famous town in Orissa which is considered sacred because of the temple dedicated to Lord Jagannath. Here, the poet has tried to unveil the original economic and religious scene of Puri as well as whole country that never gets revealed. Once the poet walks on the beach at Puri. He then notices a skull on the beach where bodies are normally cremated. The skull is a part of a cremation that has not been completely burnt by the funeral pyre. This skull is emblematic of the poverty and spiritual handicap of Puri, in spite of all the religious connections and connotations. The skull represents the hollowness of life, and the inevitability of death. Puri here, functions as a miniature metaphor of India. The term ‘empty country’ reflects the pathetic economic condition of most of the people of India.


ALL BROAD QUESTIONS ON DAWN AT PURI BY JAYANTA MAHAPATRA

“The answer is, it is I. Anywhere and Everywhere, I see the one who calls himself I In this word, he is tightly packed like the Sword in its sheath. It is I who drink lonely Drinks at twelve, midnight, in hotels of strange towns”—Explain / "The hungry haste Of rivers, in me . . . the oceans' tireless Waiting"- Explain


“The answer is, it is I. Anywhere and 
Everywhere, I see the one who calls himself I
In this word, he is tightly packed like the 
Sword in its sheath. It is I who drink lonely
Drinks at twelve, midnight, in hotels of strange towns”—Explain

OR

"The hungry haste
Of rivers, in me . . . the oceans' tireless
Waiting"- Explain

Answer: Once the poetess met an unknown man. In the spirit of youth and passion, she began to love him. According to her, her love was as profound and tireless like a sea waiting for a river. Here her lover had been compared to a river and she compared herself as a sea. She wanted nothing from him except love, but when the lady wanted to know about the relation and real identity of that man, the man replied that he was not living for her; rather he loved himself more than the woman. That man introduced himself as 'I', not as the better half of the woman. That man was careless to the lady. He was desperate to possess the lady only physically. And being a male, he got advantages to drink lonely at midnight in any hotel of any unknown town. No one could rebuke him or trace him. Whatever happens, only happens to a woman in the eye of society. No infamy could touch a man. He always remained protected like a sword in its sheath.

“Dress in sarees, be girl Be wife, they said. Be embroiderer, be cook, Be a quarreller with servants, Fit in. Oh, Belong, cried the categorizers. Don't sit On walls or peep in through our lace-draped windows. Be Amy, or be Kamala. Or, better Still, be Madhavikutty. It is time to Choose a name, a role. Don't play pretending games.”—Explain. / “Don’t play pretending games”—Explain.



“Dress in sarees, be girl
Be wife, they said. Be embroiderer, be cook,
Be a quarreller with servants, Fit in. Oh,
Belong, cried the categorizers. Don't sit
On walls or peep in through our lace-draped windows.
Be Amy, or be Kamala. Or, better
Still, be Madhavikutty. It is time to
Choose a name, a role. Don't play pretending games.”—Explain.

/OR/ 

“Don’t play pretending games”—Explain.


Answer: These lines have been taken from the poem An Introduction by Kamala Das. Once the poet or a girl described in the poem was forcefully got married without her consent even when she had not crossed her childhood. Due to her low age, she could not endure the marriage physically and mentally and soon became great with a baby. She began to hate her womanhood. And to be distinguished and to get rid of rules, order imposed on her, she cut her hair short, and wore her brother's shirt. But the society did not permit her to do all that. Always the male dominated society had underestimated the freedom, will of woman. Even they set the dress-code of women. According to them, they have no right to be equal to male as woman has just born to be someone's daughter or wife. Woman should not go outside to do any work; rather she should be a cook or an embroiderer. Even as if to be a perfect woman, according to the categorizer, woman should be a well quarreler with servant. Over all the male-governed society did not allow her to be her own identity. They were forced to take the identity or name of their husband. They should not peep though the window lace because she might look the world outside. 


“I am Indian, very brown, born in Malabar, I speak three languages and write in Two, dream in one.”—Explain. / “Why not let me speak in Any language I like? The language I speak, Becomes mine, its distortions, its queernesses All mine, mine alone. It is half English, half Indian, ”—Explain. / Describe the Indianness of the girl mentioned in the poem An Introduction.


“I am Indian, very brown, born in Malabar, 
I speak three languages and write in 
Two, dream in one.”—Explain. 

/OR/

“Why not let me speak in 
Any language I like? The language I speak,
Becomes mine, its distortions, its queernesses
All mine, mine alone.
It is half English, half Indian, ”—Explain. 

/OR/ 

Describe the Indianness of the girl mentioned in the poem An Introduction.


Answer: These lines belong to Kamala Das' poem An Introduction. Here at the very beginning of the poem, the poetess has described herself as an Indian. Besides, like most South Indians, her complexion is dark. But she is not ashamed to it. Then she establishes a contradiction between her own will and the will of male-dominated society. At that time society does not allow a girl or a woman to be educated in foreign language like English except her mother tongue. The society even sets the language to be spoken by the women. The woman has no right to select her own language. But here the poet has presents argument over this matter. According to her if she feels easy to write, speak in other language like English, no one should raise question against it because through that language she can express her inner-self, words of mind more freely and beautifully. Through that language she can dream to be an established citizen. So like man, every woman has right to select her language to speak, dream or write.

“I was a child, and later they Told me I grew, for I became tall, my limbs Swelled and one or two places sprouted hair”—Explain. OR, “He did not beat me But my sad woman-body felt so beaten.”—Explain.



“I was a child, and later they 
Told me I grew, for I became tall, my limbs
Swelled and one or two places sprouted hair”—Explain.

/OR/

“He did not beat me
But my sad woman-body felt so beaten.”—Explain.


Answer: In the poem An Introduction, the poetess Kamala Das has presented the pathetic condition of Indian women. Here the feminine poetic persona has been presented as 'I'. That woman was once a child. Though her physical appearance seemed to be adult, her state of mind was like a child and full of innocence. But the male dominated society wanted to get her married quickly because she was growing up. She was not agreeing to get married but in the eye of society that girl had no right to remain unmarried even when she had not crossed her childhood. It shows that the girl had nothing to do anything in the society like education, play etc. except marriage. There nobody gave any importance to her will.


ALL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS OF THE POEM AN INTRODUCTION BY KAMALA DAS



AN INTRODUCTION 
Kamala das


1. “I was a child, and later they 
Told me I grew, for I became tall, my limbs 
Swelled and one or two places sprouted hair”—Explain. 

/OR/ 

2. “He did not beat me 

3. “I am Indian, very brown, born in Malabar, 
I speak three languages and write in 
Two, dream in one.”—Explain. 

/OR/

4. “Why not let me speak in 
Any language I like? The language I speak,
Becomes mine, its distortions, its queernesses
All mine, mine alone.
It is half English, half Indian, ”—Explain. 

/OR/ 


6. “Dress in sarees, be girl 
Be wife, they said. Be embroiderer, be cook, 
Be a quarreller with servants, Fit in. Oh, 
Belong, cried the categorizers. Don't sit
On walls or peep in through our lace-draped windows.
Be Amy, or be Kamala. Or, better
Still, be Madhavikutty. It is time to
Choose a name, a role. Don't play pretending games.”—Explain. 

/OR/ 




Bengali meaning of the poem An Introduction by Kamala Das.



An Introduction
by 
Kamala Das

I don't know politics but I know the names
Of those in power, and can repeat them like
Days of week, or names of months, beginning with Nehru.
I am Indian, very brown, born in Malabar,
I speak three languages, write in
Two, dream in one.
Don't write in English, they said, English is
Not your mother-tongue. Why not leave
Me alone, critics, friends, visiting cousins,
Every one of you? Why not let me speak in
Any language I like? The language I speak,
Becomes mine, its distortions, its queernesses
All mine, mine alone.


It is half English, halfIndian, funny perhaps, but it is honest,
It is as human as I am human, don't
You see? It voices my joys, my longings, my
Hopes, and it is useful to me as cawing
Is to crows or roaring to the lions, it
Is human speech, the speech of the mind that is
Here and not there, a mind that sees and hears and
Is aware. Not the deaf, blind speech
Of trees in storm or of monsoon clouds or of rain or the
Incoherent mutterings of the blazing
Funeral pyre. I was child, and later they
Told me I grew, for I became tall, my limbs
Swelled and one or two places sprouted hair.
WhenI asked for love, not knowing what else to ask
For, he drew a youth of sixteen into the
Bedroom and closed the door, He did not beat me
But my sad woman-body felt so beaten.
The weight of my breasts and womb crushed me.
I shrank Pitifully.


Then … I wore a shirt and my
Brother's trousers, cut my hair short and ignored
My womanliness. Dress in sarees, be girl
Be wife, they said. Be embroiderer, be cook,
Be a quarreller with servants. Fit in. Oh,
Belong, cried the categorizers. Don't sit
On walls or peep in through our lace-draped windows.
Be Amy, or be Kamala. Or, better
Still, be Madhavikutty. It is time to
Choose a name, a role. Don't play pretending games.
Don't play at schizophrenia or be a
Nympho. Don't cry embarrassingly loud when
Jilted in love … 


I met a man, loved him. Call
Him not by any name, he is every man
Who wants. a woman, just as I am every
Woman who seeks love. In him . . . the hungry haste
Of rivers, in me . . . the oceans' tireless
Waiting. Who are you, I ask each and everyone,
The answer is, it is I. Anywhere and,
Everywhere, I see the one who calls himself I
In this world, he is tightly packed like the
Sword in its sheath. It is I who drink lonely
Drinks at twelve, midnight, in hotels of strange towns,
It is I who laugh, it is I who make love
And then, feel shame, it is I who lie dying
With a rattle in my throat. I am sinner,
I am saint. I am the beloved and the
Betrayed. I have no joys that are not yours, no
Aches which are not yours. I too call myself I.

BENGALI MEANING


একটি পরিচিতি
কমলা দাস


আমি রাজনীতি বুঝি না কিন্তু আমি নামগুলো জানি

যারা ক্ষমতায় থাকে এবং আমি নামগুলি বারবার বলতে পারি

যেমনভাবে আমি বলতে পারি সপ্তাহের দিনের নাম , মাসের নাম, একদম নেহেরু থেকে শুরু করে।

আমি একজন ভারতীয়, আমার গায়ের রং কালো, জন্মেছি মালাবারে

আমি কথা বলতে পারি তিন ভাষায়, লিখতে পারি

দুটি ভাষায় এবং স্বপ্ন দেখি একটি ভাষায়।

"একদম ইংরেজিতে লিখবে না", তারা বলল, "ইংরেজি

তোমার মাতৃভাষা না।" কেন

আমাকে একা থাকতে দিচ্ছ না, সমালোচক, বন্ধু, বেড়াতে আসা খুড়তুতো ভাই রা

তোমরা সবাই? কেন আমায় কথা বলতে দিচ্ছ না

যেকোনো ভাষায় যা আমার ভালো লাগে? যে ভাষায় আমি কথা বলি

সেই ভাষাই আমার ভাষা, এটির বিকৃতকরণ, এটির উদ্ভোটতা

সবই আমার শুধু আমার



আমার ভাষা অর্ধেকই ইংরেজি, অর্ধেক ভারতীয়, শুনতে হয়তো মজার, কিন্তু সেই ভাষা সৎ

এই ভাষা আমি যেমন মানুষ তেমনই, 

তোমরা বুঝতে পারছ না? এই ভাষা প্রকাশ করে আমার আনন্দ আমার চাওয়া পাওয়া

আমার আশা এবং এই ভাষা আমার কাছে ততটাই প্রয়োজনীয়

যতটা কাকের ডাক কাকের কাছে এবং সিংহের গর্জন সিংহের কাছে প্রয়োজনীয়

আমার ভাষা মানুষের ভাষা, মনের ভাষা যা শুধু

আমার কাছেই আছে এবং অন্যত্র নেই, আমার মন দেখতে পাই শুনতে পায়

এবং সব ব্যাপারে সজাগ। আমার ভাষা বধির অন্ধ ভাষা না

ঝড়ের মধ্যে গাছের ভাষার মতো অথবা বর্ষার মেঘের মতো অথবা বৃষ্টির মত অথবা

অপ্রাসঙ্গিক মন্ত্র পাঠ এর মত

জ্বলন্ত চিতার পাশে। আমি ছোট ছিলাম এবং তারা

আমায় বলল আমি বড় হয়ে গেছি, কারণ আমি লম্বা হয়ে গেছি, আমার অঙ্গ গুলি

ফুলে উঠেছে এবং আমার দেহের দুই-একটি জায়গাতে চুলের উদ্ভব ঘটেছে

যখন আমি ভালোবাসা চাইলাম, না বুঝেই কি চাইতে হবে

যখন সে (স্বামী) ১৬ বছরের একজন তরুনীকে (লেখিকা)

নিয়ে গেল তার বেডরুমে এবং দরজা বন্ধ করে দিল, সে আমায় আঘাত করলো না

কিন্তু আমার দুঃখী নারী শরীর খুব আঘাত পেল

আমার বক্ষ এবং গর্ভের ভার আমাকে পিষে দিল

আমি করুণভাবে কুঁকড়ে গেলাম



তখন আমি ছেলেদের জামা পড়লাম এবং আমার 

ভাইয়ের প্যান্ট পরলাম, চুলগুলো ছোট করে ছাটলাম এবং উপেক্ষা করলাম

আমার নারীসত্তা কে। "শাড়ি পরো, মেয়ে হও

স্ত্রী হও" তারা বলল "সেলাইয়ের কাজ শেখো, রাঁধুনি হও, 

চাকরদের সাথে ঝগড়া করো। এতেই তোমাদের মানায়। ওহ

যা বলছি তাই হও" চিৎকার করে বললো বিভেদকারী রা। 

"দেওয়ালের ওপর বসবে না অথবা পর্দা ঢাকা জানালা দিয়ে বাইরে তাকাবে না।

অ্যামি হও, অথবা কমলা হও। অথবা ভাল হয়

মাধবী কুট্টি হও ।এখন সময় হয়েছে

একটি নাম, চরিত্র বেছে নেওয়ার। খেলা করার ভান করো না

মানসিক রোগীর মত হয়ো না অথবা

যৌণ আবেদন ময়ী হইও না। চিৎকার করে অস্বস্তিকর ভাবে যে কান্না করো না

যখন তুমি ভালোবাসায় প্রতারিত হবে"



তারপর আমার সাথে পরিচয় হলো একজন পুরুষের, তাকে ভালো বাসলাম

তাকে নাম ধরে ডেকো না। সে প্রতিটি পুরুষের মতো

যে একজন মহিলাকে চায় আমার মত

যে মহিলা শুধু ভালোবাসা চায়, সেই পুরুষটির মধ্যে রয়েছে অসম্ভব যৌন ক্ষুধা

ঠিক যেন নদীর মত, আর আমার মধ্যে রয়েছে সমুদ্রের মতো ক্লান্তিহীন অপেক্ষা করার ধৈর্য

আমি প্রতিটি পুরুষ কে জিজ্ঞাসা করলাম "তুমি কে?"

উত্তর পেলাম "আমি হলাম আমি"। যেকোনো জায়গায়

এবং সর্বত্র আমি দেখি পুরুষদের যারা নিজেকে 'আমি' বলে পরিচয় দেয়

এই পৃথিবীতে প্রতিটি পুরুষ নিজেকে আঁটোসাঁটো ভাবে রক্ষা করে

ঠিক যেমন খাপের মধ্যে তরোয়াল থাকে। প্রতিটি পুরুষ হল সেই 'আমি' যে একা একা মদ্যপান করে

রাত্রি বারোটায় মদ্যপান করে, মাঝরাতে অচেনা শহরের হোটেলের রাত্রি কাটায়

প্রতিটি পুরুষ হল সেই 'আমি' যে জোরে জোরে হাসে, যে মেয়েদের সাথে যৌন সম্পর্ক করে

এবং তারপর তার জন্য লজ্জাবোধ করে এবং এটি হলো সেই পুরুষ যে মারা যায়

গলায় একটা ঢেলা নিয়ে। আমি হলাম পাপী

আবার আমি ই হলাম সাধু। আমি হলাম প্রেমিকা এবং আমি

বিশ্বাস ঘাতিত। আমার এমন কোনো আনন্দ নেই যা তোমার নেই

এমন কোনো যন্ত্রণা নেই যা তোমার নেই। তাই আমিও নিজেকে 'আমি' বলে ডাকতে শুরু করলাম।


“ But not because of its magnificence Dear is the Casuarina to my soul” –Explain / What are the childhood memories of the poetess attached to the tree?



“ But not because of its magnificence 
Dear is the Casuarina to my soul” –Explain 
OR 
What are the childhood memories of the poetess attached to the tree? 

Answer: The poetess Toru Dutt describes a casuarina tree situated in her house garden in her poem “Our Casuarina Tree”. She starts the poem with its physical description and magnificent size. Later she informs us that the tree is dear and special to her not for its huge size but for the childhood memories attached to tree. She informs us that under the boughs of that tree, she had played, spent with her beloved sister, brother and companions in childhood. Now after a long time, those companions are not alive, but those memories are still alive in her mind through the presence of that tree. So the poetess is so much emotionally attached to the tree that even she can feel and hear the murmur sounds of the tree when she is very far from her native land and this fills her eyes full of warm tears.

Describe the scene Toru Dutt observes through her casement at dawn.



Answer: The poetess has superbly described the dawn scene seen through her casement. At that time she observes the home garden’s casuarina tree at her very first sight. She becomes delighted to see the view. On that tree, a huge gray baboon is sitting at the very top. Its body is like a statue. It is waiting for sunrise. On the lower branches, there are its children that leap and play. The kokilas on the tree welcome the day with their chirping sound. Beneath the tree, by the pond, cows are seen to go to their fields. That pond is vast and covered with water lilies like snow and on them, the huge shadow of the casuarina tree falls.


How does the poetess make an attempt to immortalize the casuarina tree?





Answer: The poetess Toru Dutt shows her love and affection to a casuarinas tree that is situated in her home garden. That tree bears a lot of childhood memories of the poetess and her siblings. So the poetess has special love and affection for her beloved casuarinas tree. She wishes that tree may live forever. In order to immortalize that tree, she dedicates a small song in the honour of it. She believes that though all her playmates have died and one day she will also die, her beloved tree will not die. It will be alive with the deathless trees of Borrow-dale Valley. Here the poetess also shows her firm faith in the power of her poetry to immortalize its subject. She thinks that in her poetry, in which way the tree’s beauty has been described, that tree will defend the oblivion’s curse and even the death.


Describe the Casuarina tree.



Describe the Casuarina tree. 

ANSWER: The Poetess reminiscences her childhood and childhood casuarina tree at old stage of her life. According to her, that tree holds an important place in her life. With tenderness and love, she portrays the tree magnificently in this poem. The tree is in her home garden. The creeper lives on it and creeper winds the tree round and round like a scarf making several wounds on its bark. In the tree, cluster of crimson flowers hang from its branches that attracts the bees and birds. And at night sweet songs of birds can be heard that rejoices the tired people. 

      Also, at dawn, the poetess sees the tree standing in its majestic way through her casement. At that time a gray baboon sees the sunrise sitting on the top of the tree and its playful children loaf about the lower branches. Besides, the sweet song of kokilas fills the morning atmosphere. The sleepy cows are seen to go to their fields under the tree. The shadow of that tree falls on a side by pond. In that shadowy pond, beautiful snow-like water-lilies bloom.


ALL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS OF THE POEM "OUR CASUARINA TREE" BY TORU DUTT

Saturday, August 29, 2020

Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about the problem caused by bursting crackers during festivals.



To 
The Editor,
The Telegraph,
Kolkata—01.

Sir, 

      I shall be highly obliged if you kindly allow me a little space in the columns of your highly esteemed daily so that I may ventilate my opinion to draw the attention of the concerned authority about the problem caused by bursting crackers during festivals.

Using crackers has now become to be a fashion in every festival. No festival is left without bursting cracker. During immersion ceremony of every puja, specially all through the Kali puja, it has been a part and parcel. The bursting of crackers causes huge inconveniences to both old and the young. The life of peace-loving people has become a very much difficult. The students can't concentrate their mind in studies. The patients of cardiac and nerve trouble are the worst sufferers. They cannot sleep due to extreme sound at night time. The lack of sleep tells upon their fitness and spirit. Besides it causes different serious diseases like sleeplessness, abnormal blood stress, cardiac disturbance, intellectual imbalance, worried debility, headache and anxiety even permanent deafness. sometimes, the fire of crackers cause fatal fire accident that even takes away the life of innocent people.

I, as a responsible citizen of this society, in view of all these, think that the time has come for the authority to take critical observe of this evil and take important steps to prohibit the manufacture of crackers to mitigate the suffering of many, otherwise the public grievance may, at any time, lead to a dire consequence.

Thanking you,
Yours faithfully,
 Sangeeta Mondal
Dated Nadia, 
Nrisinghapur,
The 27th April,2013 

Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about problem of population explosion.



To
The Editor,
The Telegraph,
Kolkata—01.

Sir,

      I shall be highly obliged if you kindly allow me a little space in the columns of your highly esteemed daily so that I may ventilate my opinion to draw the attention of the concerned authority about problem of population explosion.

Every day, the population of world is getting increased rapidly and this rate of increasing a very much alarming for the mankind. Humanity is now confronted with this critical problem. This population explosion is swiftly increasing the strain of populace on the earth. If the prevailing rate of boom is going on unchecked, the population of the world will touch an extreme figure and this can create a reputedly acute problem to us. The growing pressure on land will create serious instability in economy, political and environment from which no one will get rid of. The trouble might lead to invasion of agricultural land and forests for construction of new township, resulting in much less food manufacturing and ecological disturbances. As a result, The scarcity of food, dwelling place will occur. Poor people will die from hunger. Different pandemic diseases will spread all over the world. 


I, as a responsible citizen of this society, in view of all these, think that the government should take necessary steps and introduce family planning as a strict law as early as possible to solve this problem, otherwise the public grievance may, at any time, lead to a dire consequence.

Thanking you,

 Yours faithfully,
Sangeeta Mondal
Dated Nadia,
Nrisinghapur, 
The 27th April,2013

Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about problem of reckless driving.



To 
The Editor, 
The Telegraph, 
Kolkata—01. 

Sir, 
       I shall be highly obliged if you kindly allow me a little space in the columns of your highly esteemed daily so that I may ventilate my opinion to draw the attention of the concerned authority about reckless driving by drivers of motors, buses and lorries passing along the roads. 

With development in science, a simple life leading is getting difficult for us. In the way, everyday innocent people are getting run oven below the wheels of speeding buses and other vehicles is simply alarming. Most of the drivers drive their vehicle discarding the rules of traffic. Not only walking on the road but also driving has become a danger for us. Serious injuries are almost every day occurrence. In many cases, drunken drivers drive carelessly and kills the innocent people. Besides the young boys of rich family having no control of their family over them, drive car or bike at high speed as a part of fashion and cause fatal accident. The toll of injuries and death are growing day by day. It has turn out to be an everyday headache for mother and father who've school going kids. 

I, as a responsible citizen of this society, in view of all these, think that the due authority should take necessary steps and introduce strict traffic rules as early as possible to solve this problem, otherwise the public grievance may, at any time, lead to a dire consequence. 

Thanking you, 

Yours faithfully, 
 Sangeeta Mondal 
Dated Nadia, 
Nrisinghapur,
The 27th April,2013 

Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about problem of eve-teasing.




To 
The Editor,
The Telegraph,
Kolkata—01.


Sir, 

I shall be highly obliged if you kindly allow me a little space in the columns of your highly esteemed daily so that I may ventilate my opinion to draw the attention of the concerned authority about the problem of eve-teasing. 

Teasing girls and harassing women had been a major problem since long in our country. Eve-teasing means depressing, pinched, nudging, pushing and insulting a girl in public places like crowded bus, market, roads. When the girls go out at the roads for their personal reason, it is very often seen that they're chased and commented upon. Basically, younger unemployed boys having to do, indulge within the practice of eve teasing. Younger loafer boys of reckless manners are seen to elevate their fangs and desperately tease the innocent passersby all of the time. The gang of desperadoes acquire before the gates of the women' college and make obscene gestures and sing lecherous songs pointing closer to the girls. The younger lads whistle and phone after them, try and choose up a communique, make indecent comments. The psychological outcomes are regularly devastating. The younger women sense shaky to attend their faculty or working place. Many of the sufferers even devote suicide and people who dare to raise their voices locate themselves humiliated. 

I, as a responsible citizen of this society, in view of all these, think that the due authority should take necessary steps as early as possible to solve this problem, otherwise the public grievance may, at any time, lead to a dire consequence.

Thanking you,

Yours faithfully,
 Sangeeta Mondal
Dated Nadia, 
Nrisinghapur,
The 27th April,2013. 



Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about the problem caused by the shortage of small coins.



To 
The Editor,
The Telegraph,
Kolkata—01.

Sir,
      I shall be highly obliged if you kindly allow me a little space in the columns of your highly esteemed daily so that I may ventilate my opinion to draw the attention of the concerned / due authority about the problem caused by the shortage of small coins in recent time. 


Of late, there has been an acute shortage of small coins in India. It is causing much inconvenience to all of us. In bus, tram or shops we are facing a lot of trouble to pay the rent or value. Sometimes it causes quarrel between the bus-contractors and the passengers. In markets or shops, we cannot able to buy our necessary commodities due to lack of small coins. Even, the shopkeeper cannot satisfy his customers due to lack of it. 


I, in view of all these, think that the due authority should take necessary steps as early as possible to solve this problem, otherwise the public grievance may, at any time, lead to a dire consequence. 

Thanking you,

Yours faithfully,
 Dipa Baidya
Dated Nadia, 
Nrisinghapur ,
The 27th April,2013 


Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about the problem of ragging in Educational institutions.



To 

The Editor,

The Telegraph,

Kolkata—01.


Sir,

     I shall be highly obliged if you kindly allow me a little space in the columns of your highly esteemed daily so that I may ventilate my opinion to draw the attention of the concerned / due authority about the problem of ragging in Educational institutions.


Of late ragging which is common word to us, has become an acute problem in India. In past time there was ragging in the institutions, hostels and it was only for fun. But now it has turned to a violent matter. It is seen that in Engineering and Medical colleges the new students of rural areas are the victims of it. They are subjected to inhuman torture physically and mentally. Sometimes it causes the loss of lives. As a result many valuable lives are nipped in bud. There may be reasons behind it but none can support this brutality in the name of ragging.


I, in view of all these, think that the due authority should take necessary steps as early as possible to solve this problem, otherwise the public grievance may, at any time , lead to a dire consequence.

Thanking you,

Yours faithfully,
 Prasenjit Mondal
Dated Nadia, 
Nrisinghapur ,
The 27th April,2013