Thursday, March 24, 2022



FM: 80

1. Select the correct answer. 1x5=5

a) How old was Leela?— i) 5 ii) 6 iii) 7  iv) 8

b) At last, Jimmy settled in—i) Springfield ii) Elomre iii) London iv) Little Rock

c) Who discovered the missing chain in tamarind pot?—i) Leela    ii) Sivasanker    iii) Sidda iv) Mother

d) In jail, Jimmy was—i) cooking  ii) sleeping  iii) repairing shoe iv) playing

e) Who struck on Mohan’s face—i) Bill ii) Jim iii) Coolie iv) Bearer

2. Answer any five: 1x5=5

a) Why did the inspector become furious at Sivasanker?

b) When does Sidda touch the moon?

c) Why was Jimmy in jail?

d) Who was Mr. Adams?

e) Why did Lachmi not travel with Mohan?

f) What reason did Jimmy tell the hotel Clerk for his coming?

g) What was Sidda given for his job?

3. Answer any two: 5x2=10

a) How was Sidda treated in Leela's house?

b) What changes came in Jimmy's life in Elmore?

c) How did Mohan enjoy his train journey?

d) How did Leela take class of Sidda? How did the class end?

e) Whom did Jimmy wrote a letter? What did he write?

4. Select the correct answer. 1x5=5

a) The wind first met—i) ship ii) mariners iii) mist iv) bird

b) Leafy banners mean—i) forests ii) deep sea iii) branches full of leaf iv) boughs

c) The moon was—i) half ii) full iii) silvery iv) golden.

d) The lovers crosses—i) 1 ii) 2 iii) 3 iv) 4 fields

e) Who ignores the beauty of London will be—i) dull ii) clever iii) busy iv) nothing.

5. Answer any five: 1x5=5

a) How was the sea-beach?

b) Where was the moon?

c) Where did the beloved live?

d) When was the poet crossing the Westminster  bridge?

e) Which river is mentioned in the poem “Upon Westminster Bridge”?

f) Why did the wind tell the corn to bow down?

g) What did the wind say to the wood-bird?

6. Answer any two: 5x2=10

a) Describe the journey of the   lover in Meeting at Night.

b) What role did the wind take in the morning?

c) "This City now doth like a garment wear"- Describe the city.

d) Bring out the significance of the title of the poem "Meeting at Night".

e) With whom did the wind meet in the morning? What did the wind tell the corns and the dead persons? Why did it sigh at churchyard?

7. Select the correct answer. (any five) 1x5=5

a) Duncan was killed by—i) Macbeth ii) Macduff iii) Lady Macbeth iv) Malcolm

b) Macduff was thane of --i) Cawdor ii) Glamis iii) Fife iv) Ross

c) The son of Banquo was—i) Macbeth ii) Macduff iii) Fleance iv) Malcolm

d) Emilia was the wife of—i) Cassio ii) Othello iii) Iago iv) Roderigo

e) Duke senior was banished in—i)Forest of Arden  ii) birnam wood iii) jail  iv)none

f) Iago was—i)learned ii) good at heart iii) crafty iv) religious

g) Oliver married—i) Rosalind ii) Desdemona iii) Celia iv) Olivia

h) Whom did Orlando defeat in the wrestling?—i)Charles ii) Oliver    iii)Duke   iv)none

8. Answer any one: 5x1=5

a) Character of Macbeth?

b) Why did Lady Macbeth fail to Kill Duncan? Why was Macbeth hesitating to kill Duncan?

c) How did the handkerchief take a role in Othello?

d) What charges did Brabantio bring against Othello? How did Othello get rid of them?

e) Describe the banquet scene in Macbeth.

9. A. Do as directed. 1x7 =7

a) Bring him back. (VC)

b) Jimmy said to warden, "I never went to the Springfield in my life." (NC)

c) Sidda closed his eyes and threw the ball up. (Complex)

d) Jimmy got released from the jail. He went straight to a restaurant. (Make it simple using participle)

e) No one rejected his proposal. (Affirmative)

f) Jimmy glance at her face.  (Use noun form of 'glance')

g) The mirror was obviously made in India. (Split)

B. Fill in the blanks with article and preposition. ½ x 6=3

The train steamed____________, Lachmi found herself facing__________ almost empty inter-class zenana compartment next__________ the guard’s van, __________ the tail end __________ the train. The rest of _______ train was packed.

10. Write a paragraph on “Good and Bad Effect of Internet” 10


Write a story on the basis of following points- 10

A poor farmer—got a goose—laid golden eggs every day—became rich—wanted more more—became greedy—cut the belly of goose to get all golden eggs together—found just one egg—goose died—lost all.

11. You want to sell your house. Now write an advertisement. 5


A writer is seeking an assistant. Now write an advertisement. 5

12. A renowned tour agency is going to make a trip to Vizag. Now write a commercial leaflet for them. 5


Prepare a commercial leaflet for a coaching Centre / company who are going to offer new courses/ going to open a new showroom. 5

Thursday, March 17, 2022

Write a report on the preventive measures taken by local administration against the Corona virus in your locality.

-by a staff reporter,

       Santipur, 16/03/2022: Yesterday Santipur Municipality had taken so many initiatives to aware the people about Corona virus and to stop the spread of this deadly virus. The authority at first organized an awareness camp at Santipur Public Library ground with the residents of Santipur. In this camp, Chairman of Santipur Municipality, O.C of Santipur Police Station were present. They all delivered their important speeches and advised people to obey many essential rules and regulations. They also encouraged people to cover the face with a mask, maintain social distancing, wash hands frequently with soap and use sanitizer. Also they appeal them to avoid spitting in public places. Later, a rally was organized in the locality to let all know how to prevent the spreading of corona virus. Masks, sanitizers and soap were distributed among the residents. The programmed ended in great success.

Tuesday, March 15, 2022

Bengali Meaning of the Poem "Daybreak" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Daybreak কবিতার বাংলা অর্থ ও বিষয়বস্তু

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

হেনরি ওয়াডসওর্থ লংফেলো

A wind came up out of the sea,
And said, "O mists, make room for me."

একটি বাতাস সমুদ্র থেকে ওপরে উঠে এলো,
এবং বলল, “ও কুয়াশা, আমার যাওয়ার জন্য জায়গা করে দাও।”

It hailed the ships, and cried, "Sail on,
Ye mariners, the night is gone."

বাতাস উচ্চস্বরে জাহাজ গুলি কে ডাকল এবং চিৎকার করে বলল, “ভেসে পরো,
ওহে নাবিক রা, রাত্রি যে পোহাল / শেষ হয়ে গেল।”

And hurried landward far away,
Crying, "Awake! it is the day."

এবং বাতাস ছুটে গেল দূরের স্থলভাগের দিকে,
চিৎকার করতে লাগলো, “ওঠো! দিন হয়ে গেছে।”

It said unto the forest, "Shout!
Hang all your leafy banners out!"

বাতাস বনভূমি কে বলল , “মর্মর ধ্বনি করো!
তোমার পাতা যুক্ত ডালপালা গুলি প্রসারিত করো!”

It touched the wood-bird's folded wing,
And said, "O bird, awake and sing."

এটা বনের পাখির সঙ্কুচিত ডানাকে স্পর্শ করল,
এবং বলল, “ও পাখি, ওঠো এবং গান করো।”

And o'er the farms, "O chanticleer,
Your clarion blow; the day is near."

বাতাস খামার বাড়ির ওপর থেকে বলল, “ও মোরগ,
উচ্চ স্বরে ডাকো; দিন খুব কাছে।”

It whispered to the fields of corn,
"Bow down, and hail the coming morn."

বাতাস ক্ষেতের শস্য গুলিকে ফিসফিস করে বলল,
“তোমার মাথা নোয়াও, এবং আগত সকাল কে অভিবাদন করো।”

It shouted through the belfry-tower,
"Awake, O bell! proclaim the hour."

বাতাস গির্জার ঘণ্টার মধ্যে দিয়ে বয়ে যাওয়ার সময় চিৎকার করে বলল,
“ও ঘণ্টা! ওঠো, সময়ের ঘোষণা করো।”

It crossed the churchyard with a sigh,
And said, "Not yet! in quiet lie."

বাতাস কবর খানা অতিক্রম করল একটি দীর্ঘশ্বাস ফেলে,
এবং বলল, “এখন সময় হয় নি! শান্ত হয়ে ঘুমিয়ে থাকো।”

বিষয়বস্তু ও ব্যাখ্যা

কবিতাটি 1858 সালে Birds of Passage কাব্যগ্রন্থে প্রকাশিত হয়। কবিতাটিতে বাতাস প্রধান চরিত্র। একটি বাতাস কিভাবে সমুদ্র থেকে জন্ম নিয়ে প্রকৃতির প্রতিটি উপাদান এর কাছে ছুটে যায় এবং তাদের ঘুম থেকে জাগায়, তারই বর্ননা কবিতায় করা হয়েছে।

ভোরবেলায় একটি বাতাস সমুদ্র থেকে উঠে আসে এবং দেখতে পায় ঘন কুয়াশা তার পথ আটকে দাঁড়িয়ে আছে। কিন্তু বাতাস দৃঢ়প্রতিজ্ঞ ছুটে যেতে কারণ তার কাঁধে দায়িত্ব রয়েছে সবাইকে ঘুম থেকে জাগানোর। তাই সে কুয়াশাকে বলে তার জন্য রাস্তা তৈরি করে দিতে।

তারপর বাতাস পৌঁছে যায় নোঙ্গর করা জাহাজের কাছে। চিৎকার করে বাতাস নাবিকদের বলে নতুন করে যাত্রা শুরু করতে কারণ রাত্রি শেষ হয়ে গেছে।

তারপর বাতাস দ্রুত ছুটে যায় দূরের স্থলভাগের দিকে। ছুটে যাওয়ার সময় তার সাথে যার ই দেখা হচ্ছে তাকেই বাতাস চিৎকার করে বলছে , জাগো জাগো , দিন চলে এসেছে।

এরপর বাতাস পৌঁছে যায় বনভূমিতে। সেখানে বাতাস চিৎকার করে বনভূমিকে বলে, মর্মর শব্দ করতে, এবং তাদের পাতাযুক্ত ডালপালা গুলিকে প্রসারিত করতে।

বাতাস দেখতে পায়, বনের মধ্যে পাখিগুলি ডানা ভাঁজ করে শুয়ে আছে। তখন বাতাস পাখির সংকুচিত ডানাগুলো কে স্পর্শ করে এবং পাখিগুলোকে ঘুম থেকে উঠে গান করার জন্য আহ্বান করে।

এরপর বাতাস ছুটে যায় খামার বাড়ির উপর দিয়ে। তখন বাতাস উচ্চস্বরে মোরগগুলোকে বলে, চিৎকার করে দিনের বার্তা ছড়িয়ে দিতে।

বাতাস ফিসফিস করে মাঠ ভর্তি শস্য গুলোকে তাদের মাথা নোয়াতে বলে এবং আগত সকাল কে অভিবাদন জানাতে বলে। পৃথিবীর সমস্ত শক্তি এবং প্রাণের উৎস হল সূর্য। তাই সূর্যের প্রতি সম্মান জানানোর জন্য শস্য গুলিকে মাথা নোয়াতে বলে।

এরপর বাতাস পৌঁছে যায় গির্জায়। সেখানে বাতাস গির্জার ঘণ্টার মধ্য দিয়ে দ্রুত বয়ে যায় এবং চিৎকার করে গির্জার ঘণ্টা কে বলে দিনের আগমনের ঘোষণা করতে।

অবশেষে বাতাস পৌঁছায় গির্জার কবরখানায়। সেখানে বাতাস একটি দীর্ঘশ্বাস ফেলে এবং কবরে শায়িত মৃত ব্যক্তিদের উদ্দেশ্যে বলে শান্ত হয়ে ঘুমিয়ে থাকতে কারণ এখনও তাদের জেগে ওঠার সময় হয়নি। প্রকৃতির সমস্ত উপাদানগুলিকে বাতাস জাগাতে সক্ষম হয়েছে কিন্তু কবরখানায় শায়িত মৃত ব্যক্তিদের বাতাস জাগাতে ব্যর্থ হয়েছে। তাই বাতাস এখানে এসে দীর্ঘশ্বাস ফেলল। অন্যদিকে কবি মনে করেন এখন মৃত ব্যক্তিদের জেগে ওঠার সময় হয়নি। কিন্তু একদিন মৃত ব্যাক্তিরা জেগে উঠবে যেদিন পৃথিবী ধ্বংস হবে এবং সমস্ত জীবিত মানুষ মারা যাবে। সেদিন সমস্ত পৃথিবীকে মৃত ব্যক্তিরা শাসন করবে।

Saturday, March 12, 2022

"Nay there is no stond or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises."-- Explain.

This sentence occurs in Bacon's essay 'Of Studies'. Here Bacon points out that various mental defects can be removed by proper studies. The diseases of the body can be cured by appropriate physical exercise, so the mental defects or drawbacks may be remedied by the study of different types of subjects. Bowling, says Ba con is a good exercise for the diseases of kidney and stone, shooting is good for the lungs and breasts, gentle walking is good for the stomach, riding for the head. Similarly if a man's wit or intelligence be wandering, i.e., if he finds it difficult to concentrate his mind, he should take up the study of mathematics for knowledge of mathematics will help him in clear, consecutive and logical thinking. His mind will then cease to wander aimlessly. If a man is unable to understand subtle distinctions and differences, he should read the works of scholastic philosophers who are experts in making subtle distinctions. If one finds it difficult to prove one's case by citing suitable examples, then one should study the lawyer's cases where he would find how a lawyer presents his cases before a court of law. Thus, for every type of intellectual defect there is an appropriate subject to remove that defect. This is stated by Bacon in the last line of his essay, every defect of the mind may have a special receit, i.e., remedy.

"Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man."-- Explain.

This sentence is from Bacon's essay 'Of Studies'. Here Bacon states laconically the advantages derived from different types of intellectual activities. Reading makes a full man, i.e., it fills a man with all sorts of knowledge and information. It develops his mental power and helps him realize his full potentialities. The mental development then helps him to converse with others. Conference or discussion enables one to give a quick reply. He can deftly deal with any question posed by any person on different subjects. He has ready answers for all sorts of questions. He becomes an expert in debate and discussion. He becomes a ready man, he does not fumble for words. But of all the different types of intellectual activities, writing is the most important, for to write something one has to express one's ideas precisely and logically. Accurate and clear thinking is the hallmark of a good writer. As Descartes, the French philosopher, has said, what can be clearly conceived can be clearly expressed. Clear thinking expresses or manifests itself in clear expression. Clear and precise writing makes a man 'exact'. In our life many problems crop up and disputes develop because of lack of clearness, precision and accuracy in language. Nations have even gone to war because of vagueness and ambiguity in treaties, contracts and agreements. As a practical man Bacon was fully conscious of the need of being exact in writing. His statement is based on his knowledge of the affair of business and politics. Only exact men are capable of guiding the affairs of the state.

"Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested."-- Explain.

This sentence is from Bacon's essay 'Of Studies'. Here Bacon tells us how different types of books are to be studied. He compares the different methods of studying to the different ways in which we eat different types of food. Some food we merely taste without swallowing it completely. Likewise, some books are to be tasted, i.e., not studied seriously and intensively. Story books, detective novels (a type which did not exist in Bacon's time) are to be read light heartedly to derive some pleasure from them. These books are like pickle, tart and chutney. They taste good but as food they have no great value and cannot fill our stomach and nourish our body.

Some other books are of greater value. A book on geography or a reference book like an encyclopedia has to be studied with greater care and attention for they are often useful to us. Bacon compares this type of books with foods that are to be swallowed.

But the really important books e.g., the books of permanent value e.g., the works of Shakespeare, the classics, are to be read with great care and attention. We shall have to enter deep within the work to appreciate the author's contribution. Such books as the Bible or the Gita are full of moral and spiritual values which cannot be fully understood by reading them only once. They have, in the language of Bacon, to be chewed and digested, their lessons have to become an integral part of our intellectual and moral fabric.

"Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted, nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider."-- Explain.

This passage is taken from Bacon's essay 'Of Studies'. Here Bacon states the true aim of reading or study. Study enhances our power of judgment and analytical skill. But if we use this power for disputing and contradicting the statement of others that will frustrate the real aim of study. The eagerness to confute and contradict others is a negative attitude, for in this way one tries to establish one's superiority to others. Nor is the reader to take all that he reads in books as gospel truth. The aim of studies is not to find talk and discourse i.e., to show off one's linguistic ability through high-flown speeches and writings in bombastic language. Reading of books undoubtedly enhances one's ability to speak and write, to confute and contradict the statements of others. But these are not the real aim of studies. Studies should equip a person to examine a subject matter carefully, to judge its real worth. Nothing should be accepted on authority. Nothing should be accepted as true sim ply because it has been said e.g. by Aristotle or by the Pope. Everything should be weighed in the balance of reason and accepted only after careful analysis and scrutiny. In this respect Bacon may be said to be a forerunner of the spirit of Renaissance. In the Middle Ages everything was accepted on the authority of the Church and the Pope. Faith was accorded the highest place, reason a secondary place. But with the coming of the Renaissance human reason was restored to its rightful place. That is why Bacon holds that the aim of studies is to weigh and consider.

"Crafty, men contemn studies, simple men admire them and wise men use them."-- Explain.

This extract is from Bacon's essay 'Of Studies'. Here Bacon speaks of three types of attitudes toward studies by persons of different nature. Crafty men, says he, hate or disregard studies. By crafty men Bacon means those who have a good practical sense but have no real education. These men think that practical knowledge of arts and craft is more useful than book knowledge for attaining success in life. That is why they hold studies in contempt. There is another class of men called 'simple men' by Bacon, who admire studies, look with wonderment at educated men. They themselves are not very educated, so they are hardly in a position to judge the true worth of knowledge and learning. They are amazed at the knowledge of scholars and admire them from a distance. But there is another group, called by Bacon wise men, who make proper use of their studies. They know that mere theoretical knowledge without its practical application in solving the problems of life is useless. Bacon himself has said, 'Knowledge is power'. The latter. category of men proves this Baconian saying. The true fulfilment of knowledge consists in attaining control over the forces of nature and in improving the lot of mankind. These men are truly wise and are the real benefactors of mankind.

"Natural abilities are like natural plants that need proyning by study." -- Explain.

This line is taken from Bacon's essay 'Of Studies'. Here Bacon compares the natural abilities of man to natural plants and points out the need for studies. Wild plants do not have proper shape. So they have to be cut and trimmed. Man's natural abilities too have likewise to be trained and corrected through studies. However great one's natural ability an unlettered man cannot shine in life. A sportsman needs a good physique which is a natural gift. But good physique alone is not sufficient to make a good sportsman. One needs proper food and training. Nature and nurture-are the two factors needed to make a good tree, a good sportsman, a good speaker. Bacon is undoubtedly right in laying stress on proper training, 'proyning' as he terms in the case of trees. The importance of studies cannot be overestimated in human life for the improvement of natural abilities. But Bacon goes on to add, only studies are not sufficient. Experience, i.e., practical knowledge of life and existence, is also needed. Without the latter studies are unlikely to serve any useful purpose.

Bacon is generally right about the importance of studies and experience in the formation of a rounded personality. Wild trees need to be pruned and trimmed for giving them proper shape. The same is the case with humans. But, it should also be noted, giant trees in natural forests attain great height without any care and tending from human agents. So with the giant among men. The genius of Shakespeare, of Jesus, of Socrates cannot be explained by proyning, trimming and cutting, reading or studies of a particular type. Their greatness defies analysis and cannot be said to be the result of studies. Bacon's remarks about studies and experience do not represent the absolute truth.

"To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar. "-- Explain.

These lines are taken from Bacon's essay 'Of Studies'. Here Bacon tries to show the limitations of too much study. Reading books undoubtedly gives us intellectual pleasure or delight, refines our language and adds to our natural abilities. These are certainly desirable ends for every cultured man. But too much of something is always to be avoided. In the field of studies Bacon sounds a note of warning by saying that too much time spent in studies produces sloth and laziness in a person. Man is not merely an intellectual being; he is a social and economic animal as well. If he spends too much time in reading books the other important aspects of his life will be neglected, his development will be lop-sided, and not a well-rounded one. Bacon himself was not a bookish scholar but was deeply involved in the social and political activities of his time.

Again, studies help us polish our language. It is, so to say, an ornament to language. Just as wearing too many ornaments, far from enhancing the beauty of a lady, prevents her natural beauty to shine forth, so also the use of too much ornament in speech amounts to affectation and pretense. It does more harm than good to us.

Lastly, Bacon warns us against over-dependence on book knowledge in forming our judgments. A bookish character lacks wide practical experience and hence forms judgments, comes to conclusions that have little or no relation with the actual world. In spite of the vastness of his book knowledge, such a person often proves to be a failure in the affairs of this world.

“Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability.” -- Explain.

In this opening sentence of his essay 'Of Studies', Bacon states the benefits that we may derive from the reading of books or studies. According to Bacon the benefits are threefold, - delight, ornament and ability. Reading of books gives us pleasure and delight. The joy of reading is particularly attractive to us in the seclusion or isolation of private life. The pleasure derived from studies is free from bad after-effects and is not like the enjoyment of gross sensual pleasure. Study of books uplifts our sentiments and ennobles. our spirit or soul.

Studies also serve as ornament, refine our speech and help us become good speakers. Studies help a man to learn what to say, how to say and when to say. Studies not only teach us decorative and polished language but also how to use it and for what purpose. A man who has done much studies stands apart, in his own glory, from the common run of men who can hardly speak intelligently and persuasively. Besides, studies enhance our natural abilities. Studies increase the power of judgment and give us indications regarding the way in which we should proceed in life.

What are the aims of studies stated by Bacon in his essay 'Of Studies"? What are the results of studies?

Ans. In the very first sentence of his essay 'On Studies' Bacon states that the main aims of studies are delight, ornament and ability. A man should study for providing himself some pleasure and entertainment. When one is in privateness and retiring, i.e., when one is alone, he may, if he so desires, derive pleasure from a study of books, particularly from books on poetry, literature and novels. From the earliest days of civilization, we find in all countries great literary figures who have provided men with enduring and unalloyed pleasure. The poetical works of Homer, the fables of Aesop, to name but a few, have been perennial sources of pleasure to men. Had men not found the study of books delightful and instructive, books would long ago have become extinct. Bacon thinks that this delight is to be pursued in privateness and retiring.

The second aim of studies is decoration or ornamentation of language. In an assembly of varied people, a speaker's aim is to win the hearts and minds of the listeners. Studies give a polish to speech and help a man to become an orator. In ancient Greece the Sophists travelled from city-state to city-state and taught, among other things, the art of oratory to the sons of the well-off. The power to influence people through polished and moving speeches was highly valued. Studies help a man to learn what to say, when to say and how to say. Oratory can work for good or evil. The orator can excite people to indulge in loot, arson and even murder. On the other hand, he can inspire people to do sublime deeds of heroism and sacrifice. Studies can teach us not only decorative and polished speech but also how to use language and for what purpose.

The third aim of studies is to increase or strengthen the natural abilities that a person already possesses. Even though a person may have natural powers or capacities for a work, studies help him to make his power trimmer and more efficient. Studies may show a man proper direction i.e., the way in which he should proceed. Studies being of such great importance to us, Bacon proceeds to warn us that there are books and books and we should not waste our precious time by attaching equal importance to the all. Some books can be just read in synopses. Others are to be read just in parts and only a few books are there which are to be studied wholly and in depth. Distilled books are like distilled waters, tasteless and insipid. They are not to be read wholly or in great detail. Most books are meant for one or other purpose. Just as bodily defects may be corrected by appropriate exercise, so can different mental defects be corrected by a study of suitable books. If a man's intelligence is wayward or wandering, he should read books on mathematics which will improve his power of mental concentration. If a person finds it difficult to understand subtle differences, he should study the works of schoolmen who are experts in making fine distinctions. If one wants to prove and establish a point, he should study law books. Thus, different types of books serve different purposes. Every defect of the mind has its special remedy in the study of appropriate kind of books. Study of books thus forms an essential part of human life.

Questions and Answers of the essay "Of Studies" by Francis Bacon.

Friday, March 11, 2022

Short questions and answers of the essay "Of Studies" by Francis Bacon.

Q. What is the sub-title of the Essays of Bacon?
Ans. The Essays have as their sub-title 'Counsels Civil and Moral'. The essays contain advice for the proper guidance of our practical life. These counsels are also meant for the improvement of the reader's moral life. These Essays are not mere theoretical or literary exercises.

Q. What idea do you form of Bacon's style from a study of his Essays?
Ans. Bacon was a philosopher. Each one of his essays is a repository of compact and profound thoughts and ideas. His sentences are short, pithy, almost aphoristic in style. What Bacon expresses in one sentence an ordinary writer would take a paragraph to state. That is why many of his short sentences have become quotable quotes. Only in Shakespeare do we have more quotations.

Q. What does Bacon mean by saying that some few books are to be chewed and digested?
Ans. All books are not of equal value or importance. Some books, especially the light ones, are to be tasted casually, i.e., gone though quickly. Some other more important books are to be swallowed, i.e., they should be studied from cover to cover. But the books of real merit should be chewed and digested, they should be studied thoroughly and we should take from them all that will lead to the nourishment of our mental faculties.

Q. What is meant by the Latin expression: Abeunt studia in mores?
Ans. It is a Latin expression taken by Bacon from Ovid. It means studies influence manners, i.e., the reading of books has a definite influence on our mental and moral faculties. History, say Bacon, makes man wise. The study of poetry, enhances the imaginative faculty of man; books on mathematics make us subtle i.e., give us analytical skill; natural philosophy or books on science makes us deep, capable of thinking seriously, logic and rhetoric make us able to contend or take on our opponents, dispute and argue with them. A knowledge of logic teaches us how to defeat our opponents in argument. Thus studies of different types of books influence the nature and character of men.

Q. Who were the schoolmen?
Ans. The word 'schoolmen' or scholastic philosophers meant those who adhered to the method or subtleties of the Medieval schools of philosophy. These philosophers were mostly theologians who accepted the Christian doctrines and tried to prove logically the basic tenets of Christianity like the Original Sin, the Doctrine of Trinity (Father, Son and Holy Ghost are one) etc. These schoolmen were noted for their fine and hair-splitting distinctions which could hardly be understood by men of average intelligence.

Q. What are the three main uses of study stated by Bacon in his essay 'Of Studies"? 
Ans. According to Bacon, the three main uses of studies are for delight, for ornament and for ability. Studies give us unalloyed de light in our hours of leisure and solitude. Studies serve for ornamentation of our language. A study of books helps us in improving our speech and discourse by indicating what to say, how to say and when to say. Thirdly, studies also enhance our natural ability. Studies increase our power of judgment and give indications regarding the way in which we should proceed.

Q. What, according to Bacon, is the difference between 'ex pert men' and 'learned' men? 
Ans. By 'expert men' Bacon means those who can execute, are able to give concrete shape to plans and programmes. They are doers of deeds and can think in terms of particular objects and events but have little grasp over universal principles or theories. But the plots i.e., the schemes, ideas or principles and the marshalling i.e., ordering of objects, events and ideas can be done only by the learned, i.e., the theoretician who has entered deep into the theoretical basis of natural phenomena.

Q. Distilled books are like common distilled waters, flashy things. 
Ans. By the expression distilled books, Bacon means the summaries of books. Less important books may be read in summaries. But when summarized, books lose their charm. As water be comes tasteless when distilled, books too when summarized be come dull and insipid.

Q. They perfect nature and are perfected by experience. 
Ans. Studies perfect the natural abilities of man. The nature abilities of man are like natural plants. To give proper shape to natural plants one should prune and trim them. Similar is the case with men. Their nature has also to be improved through study of books. But book learning alone is not enough. The proper formation of man's nature need experience in addition to studies. With out practical knowledge theoretical knowledge is of little value.

Q. Threefold purposes of study as specified by Bacon.
Ans. According to Bacon, studies serve for delight, for ornament and for ability. Q, What come from the learned? Ans. From the learned persons come the general counsels, the plots and marshalling of affairs. 

Q. What is the attitude towards studies of the crafty men, simple men and wise men?
Ans. Crafty men hate or condemn studies; simple men not being learned, admire them; but the wise men use them properly.

Q. Is contradicting or confuting (refuting) the aim of studies? 
Ans. Bacon states clearly that one should not read to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted all that is read, nor to find talk and discourse, but to weigh and consider.

Q. What is the meaning of "Abeunt studia in mores"?
Ans. The Latin expression means "Studies influence character". This sentence is taken from Ovid.

Q. Who are "cymini sectores"? 
Ans. The expression means divider of cumin seed which is very small in size. The expression has come to mean those who are experts in hair-splitting or in making subtle distinctions. It was applied to Antoninus Pius. 

Q. Who were the schoolmen?
Ans. The schoolmen were Christian theologians and philosophers of the Middle Ages who were experts in making subtle metaphysical distinctions. 

Q. What does Bacon mean by 'special receit'?
Ans. Receit means remedy or prescription. Bacon holds that different types of defect of the mind may be cured by studies of different types.

Q. What is meant by the expression to beat over matters"? 
Ans. This expression means to make a rapid survey of cases or instances to prove something. If one fails to do so, one should study lawyer's cases.

Q. What is the effect of excessive study?
Ans. It makes the reader lazy. 

Q. To make judgments wholly by their rules. - What does it mean?
Ans. A scholar who is excessively dependent on book knowledge makes his judgment on the basis of academic knowledge, not on experience of the world.

Q. What is perfected by studies?
Ans. Studies perfect nature and natural abilities.

Q. What is good for the stones and reins?
Ans. Bowling is good for the diseases of stones and reins (kidney).

Summary of the essay "Of Studies"

In this essay Bacon states briefly the aims of study, the effects of reading books on our character, the type of books to be read and the way or manner in which different types of books are to be read. The three main aims of the study of books are first, delight, i.e., studies give us intellectual pleasure; secondly, they serve to decorate the speech of the reader, i.e., he becomes able to speak in a persuasive and charming manner; thirdly, studies also enhance the native or inborn powers of a person. A man with a regular habit of reading books gathers many bits and pieces of knowledge and information from them which vastly improve his natural ability and make him successful in the practical affairs of life. Studies help an individual to marshall or better arrange facts and ideas. He becomes more efficient in handling the affairs of life. Studies also show a person the proper direction in which he should move. That is why the wise men use them, i.e., apply the studies for the improvement of life and existence.

The aim of studying or reading is not to contradict or confute (refute) the opponent, or to accept ideas uncritically or use the material or knowledge thus gained for talking, but to weigh and consider, i.e., to judge the logical value of ideas. A bright idea need not necessarily be true, and an unpleasant one false. The books from which we receive ideas are also not of equal value. The really good books which contain important ideas are to chewed and digested, i.e., read with diligence and attention. The less important books are only to be tasted i.e. read only in parts. Some others are to be read but not curiously. But the really important books are to be read wholly, i.e. from cover to cover and with due diligence and attention.

What are the effects of study or reading? It makes a full man, i.e. the man obtains ideas and information which are not generally present among ordinary men. But mere reading does not suffice. It should go hand in hand with conference, i.e. discussion. debate and argument. But writing makes a man exact; it is through writing that a man can clearly and distinctly express his ideas. A man whose ideas are not clear and distinct cannot state his ideas properly, i.e. in a logical and coherent manner.

As regards the different types of books and their effects on human nature, Bacon says that histories make man wise; poets, i.e., poetical works make men witty or intelligent; a study of books on mathematics make men subtle i.e. endows them with analytical skill; natural philosophy i.e., books on natural sciences like physics, chemistry etc. make men deep i.e. give them insight into the workings of natural phenomena; study of moral or books on ethics makes men grave i.e., they learn to control their lower instincts and behave as per moral principles, i.e. build up their moral character as per the norms dictated by ethics; logic and rhetoric enable man to contend, to argue with the opponents and refute their view-points. All this has been summed up in the Latin sentence: abeunt studia in mores, i.e. studies influence character or nature. Hence it is essential that we should read good books; the bad books will lower our nature. Just as a body may be made fit by appropriate physical exercise, so our mental faculties may be strengthened by study of suitable subject matters. A man whose intelligence wanders i.e., who is not able to follow the strict logical sequence of ideas should study mathematics for here one must proceed carefully, step by step. A knowledge of mathematics, a study of books on mathematics would thus prevent one's mental faculty from going astray. If a man is unable to make or understand subtle differences, let him read the philosophical works of the medieval philosophers who are experts in making subtle distinctions. They are in the language of Bacon "cymini sectores", hair-splitters. If one is not capable of judging all sides of a case before coming to a conclusion, and fails to cite proper precedents to bolster his own case, he should study law books where he will find illustrations regarding how lawyers establish their case before a judge. Thus reading different types of books helps correct the various types of deficiencies in our mental capacities.

Bacon's prose style: a brief analysis.

When Bacon published the first edition of his Essays in 1597, prose writings in English were not highly developed. Nor, it should be noted was Bacon a full-time literary author. He was a man of affairs, deeply involved in politics and administration. Only a small part of his energy was directed to philosophy and literature. It was after his disgrace and consequent forced retirement form public office that he could devote his whole energy to science, literature and philosophy. Without being a professional litterateur, he occupies a permanent and important place in English literature as the first essayist. To Bacon and Bacon alone belongs the distinction of introducing in English the essay as a literary genre.

The Essays fully reflect the scientific and rational outlook of Bacon as a Renaissance man. Bacon observes the world keenly and de duces his conclusions from practice and observations. His judgments have their firm basis in experience. He does not argue a priori, i.e, from cognitions prior to experience as was done by the schoolmen in the Middle Ages. His essays are always based more on reason than on imagination. There is hardly any soaring flight of imagination. He takes his stand on observation and experience of facts and events. As a philosopher and logician he was acquainted with the deductive and inductive methods. As an empiricist his decided preference was for the inductive method based on observation and experience. He not only substantiates his arguments with instances, but maintains a fine balance between example and precept. Bacon is never superfluous, but precise. He is terse, brief and shuns circumlocution. He always directly comes to the point. He does not indulge in quibbling or dispute like the Sophists. His judgment is not dogmatic and one-sided. He states the essential but does not forget to dwell on the opposite viewpoint.

Through his brevity and clarity Bacon has taught all the future essayists the art of writing essays. In the present age his style and use of words may sometimes appear to be archaic but in spite of that Bacon is remembered even today for the pragmatic and practical outlook of his Essays. This is evident in his essays 'of Study' and 'of Discourse'. In the former Bacon states the three main purposes or aims of studies -"Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability." The entry into the subject matter is direct, precise and terse. This short sentence states what many an author would take ten lines to say. He also states likewise "Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested". This statement is aphoristic and has been quoted by the readers and writers of English times without number. Another such statement is "Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing and exact man." The influence or effect of study of different types of books is succinctly stated in the following sentence, -History make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtill; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend." One may not fully agree with everything that Bacon says, but one is compelled to admire the direct, precise and brief way in which he states his views. The fact that in a short essay of Bacon one finds many quotable quotes shows the high level of his intellectual attainment.

The other essay "of Discourse" begins rather with a general statement. "Some in their discourse desire rather commendation of wit, in being able to hold all arguments, than of judgment, in discerning what is true." He compares a good discourse to an open field. And Bacon goes on to state that it is not good to show in conversation all one knows. It is better to hide some of one's knowledge in order to acquire the reputation of knowing more than what one professes to know. "If you dissemble sometimes your knowledge of that you are thought to know, you shall be thought another time to know that you know not."

The critics of Bacon point out that his language is overlaid with the influence of Latin. His essays have a fair sprinkling of Latin quotations form his favourite authors to prove his point. But, really speaking, this is no demerit in Bacon. If one reads the Essays of Montaigne one will find many more quotations in Latin and Greek. In the sixteenth century, the European languages were just beginning to stand on their own feet. The whole of Europe in the Middle Ages had Latin as the tongue of the educated class. The regional languages gradually developed out of Latin in course of a long process of evolution. So it is quite natural that in the sixteenth century authors there was a strong influence of Latin. Bacon himself wrote most of his important works in Latin, e.g. Novum Organum. The only thing to be asked is whether the Latin quotations of Bacon are apt or irrelevant. Rather, one may say in defense of Bacon that the Latin quotations add to the beauty and literary merit of the Essays. In spite of the lack of spontaneity and personal notes that one finds in the essays of Montaigne, it must be said that the Essays of Bacon bring out the spirit of the age in which he lived. Though Bacon cannot be elevated to the level of a great philosopher, in the Essays he undoubtedly rose to the height his nature would permit.

Bacon's Essays The origin and nature of the Essays

The word 'essay' comes from the French word 'essai' which means an attempt, a tentative effort, a written composition less elaborate than a treatise. It is usually a composition written in prose. The length of an essay is variable. It may be of a few hundred words or of book length. It may discuss one topic or several topics.

Essay as a literary genre owes its origin to the sixteenth century. French writer Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) who published in 1580 the first two volumes of his Essays. This literary genre was introduced in England by Francis Bacon the first editon of whose Essays was published in 1597. The essays of Bacon are aphoristic in style. They contain short and pithy statements. The Essays of Montaigne may be said to be subjective. They are fairly long and in them Montaigne flits like a butterfly from one subject to another. The grace and charm of the essays of Montaigne are lacking in Bacon whose essays are mainly didactic and full of practical advice to men of the world.

Since the days of Bacon the essay as a literary form has firmly established itself in England and we have a long and uninterrupted line of essayists. Some seventeenth century essayists followed the style of the Greek philosopher Theophrastus. But Cowley (1618-67) preferred the subjective and personalistic style of Montaigne.

In the eighteen century essays flourished in the journals like the Tatler and the Spectator. The purpose of these essays was to expose the false arts of life and to recommend a general simplicity in our dress, our discourse and our behaviour. The nineteenth century may be said to be the golden age of essays which produced such great essayists as Charles Lamb, William Hazlitt, Leigh Hunt, Landor, De Quincy and Macaulay. The essay continued to flourish in the Victorian Age through the writings of Walter Pater, Mathew Arnold, Ruskin and Carlyle. In the twentieth century we have essayists like Lucas, Lynd, Chesterton, Gardiner, Max Beerbohm.

Bacon's Essays reflect the spirit of the Renaissance. In the Middle Ages the churchmen ruled supreme and their sole interest was how to get back to Heaven from where man had been banished. by God for his disobedience. They neglected the earthly life, its science and culture. But the Renaissance brought back to the attention of men the pre-Christian Greek ideal of art, literature and philosophy. The people of Europe began to think and act free from the trammels of the church. They shifted their attention from the high heavens to this humble earth of ours. This change in attitude of the men of the age of Renaissance is clearly reflected in the essays of Bacon. He does not advise men to renounce life and society and concentrate their effort to realize otherworldly happiness. Bacon preferred the life of action to the life of contemplation. The aim of Bacon was to find out the secrets of nature through reason and experience and apply that knowledge for the improvement of our life. Knowledge is power, i.e., mastery over the forces of nature in order to improve the lot of mankind. Bacon was no woolly idealist. His feet were firmly planted on the soil. He knew that nothing practical could be realized by neglecting or ignoring the forces of nature. But he was not completely devoid of idealism as some of his critics allege. Blake is said to have remarked the essays were good advice for the kingdom of Satan, i.e., Bacon was solely concerned with material pleasure. But this criticism is certainly misguided.

Bacon was fully aware of the complexities of human nature. His essays are not religious dissertations meant for persons seeking salvation but for those who want advancement in the material world. Pragmatic and practical guidelines and indications that may help a social man lead a healthy life form the essence of the Essays of Bacon.

Bengali Meaning of "Of Discourse" by Francis Bacon. "বাক্যালাপ বা আলাপ-আলোচনা সম্পৰ্কীয়" -- ফ্রান্সিস বেকন

বাক্যালাপ বা আলাপ-আলোচনা সম্পৰ্কীয়
ফ্রান্সিস বেকন

এমন কিছু লোক আছেন যারা বাক্যালাপের মধ্য দিয়ে নিজের বিচারবুদ্ধির বাহাদুরী দেখবার চেষ্টা করেন। তাঁরা সত্য নির্ণয়ের চেয়ে নিজের যুক্তির প্রাধ্যান্য বা শ্রেষ্ঠত্ব প্রমাণ করার চেষ্টা করেন। কি বলা উচিত—এর চেয়ে তারা বেশি গুরুত্ব দেন বাস্তবিক পক্ষে কি বলা হয়েছে তারউপরে। কিছু লোক কথোপকথনে অতি সাধারণ বিষয়বস্তুগুলি উত্থাপন করে। ফলে তাদের কথোপকথন হয় বৈচিত্র্যবিহীন, একঘেয়ে এবং হাস্যকর। আলাপ আলোচনার সময় বিভিন্ন বিষয়ের অবতারণা করা, বিষয় থেকে বিষয়াত্তরে যাওয়া দরকার। আলোচনার মধ্যে বিভিন্ন বিষয়ের উত্থাপন, বিভিন্ন গল্পের অবতারণা, প্রশ্ন উত্থাপন ও তার উত্তর প্রদান করা, লঘুর সাথে সংমিশ্রণ থাকা চাই; একটি মাত্র বিষয় নিয়ে দীর্ঘ আলোচনা করলে সেটি একঘেয়ে হয়ে ওঠে। কিন্তু কতকগুলি বিষয় নিয়ে রসিকতা করা উচিত নয়, যথা—ধর্ম, রাষ্ট্রনীতি, মহাপুরুষ, কোন বিশেষ ব্যক্তির পেশা, এবং যে সমস্ত বিষয়গুলি সহানুভূতির উদ্রেক করে। কিন্তু এমন কিছু লোক আছেন যাঁরা অপরকে খোঁচা দিয়ে কথা না বলতে পারলে নিজের বুদ্ধিমত্তার পরিচয় দেওয়া হল না বলে মনে করেন। এই জাতীয় মনোভাব সংযত করা প্রয়োজন।— হে বালক, ডাঁঙশ্ মেরো না, লাগাম শক্ত করে টেনে ধর।

মানুষের উচিত নোন্তা এবং তিক্ততার মধ্যে পার্থক্য উপলব্ধি করা। যে অপর লোক সম্বন্ধে ঠাট্টা তামাসা বক্রোক্তি করে, অন্য ব্যক্তির সম্পর্কে তার সাবধান থাকা উচিত। যিনি অন্য ব্যক্তিকে বেশী প্রশ্ন করেন তিনি বেশী বিষয়ে জানতে পারেন, কিন্তু তার প্রশ্নাবলী যেন পীড়াদায়ক না হয় কারণ এ জাতীয় প্রশ্ন পরীক্ষকের পক্ষে মানান সই হবে। একই ব্যক্তির পক্ষে দীর্ঘক্ষণ কথাবার্তা চালিয়ে যাওয়া উচিত নয়, অন্য ব্যক্তিকেও কথা বলার সুযোগ দিতে হবে। একজন যদি খুব বেশীক্ষণ কথা বলে তাকে সরিয়ে নিতে হবে এবং তার জায়গায় অন্যকে নিয়ে আসতে হবে যেমন গ্যালিয়ার্ড নৃত্যে বাদকগণ যারা দীর্ঘক্ষণ নৃত্য করে তাদেরকে সরিয়ে দেয়। এছাড়া জ্ঞানভাণ্ডারের সবটুকু একসাথে প্রকাশ করা উচিত নয়, খানিকটা জ্ঞান চেপে রাখা দরকার, তাহলে ভবিষ্যতে অন্য লোকেরা তোমাকে বিরাট পণ্ডিত মনে করবে অর্থাৎ তুমি যা জান না সেটিকেও মনে করবে তুমি জান। বাক্যালাপের সময় নিজের প্রশংসা করা উচিত নয়; একমাত্র সেই গুণটি যেটি তোমার মধ্যে আছে সেটি অন্যের মধ্যে যদি দেখ তাহলে তার সেই গুণটির প্রশংসা করবে। কথাবার্তায় অন্যকে আক্রমণ করবে না; আলোচনার পরিধি হবে ব্যাপক, ফাঁকা মাঠের মত। সেটি যেন ব্যক্তি বিশেষের দিকে চালিত না হয়। অপর ব্যক্তি সম্পর্কে কটু মন্তব্য করলে সেটি একটি উত্তম নৈশভোজকে মাটি করে ফেলতে পারে। বাক্‌পটু হওয়ার চেয়ে সাবধানী বা বিচক্ষণ হওয়া ভাল। বিরামবিহীন সুদীর্ঘ ভাষণ অলসতার লক্ষণ; কথোপকথনের মধ্যে প্রশ্ন করা ও তার উত্তর দেওয়ার প্রয়োজন, তা না হলে সেটি একঘেয়ে হয়ে যাবে। গ্রে হাউণ্ড বহুদূর একটানা দৌড়তে পারে, খরগোস অত দৌড়াতে পারে না বটে, কিন্তু খুব দ্রুত বেঁকতে বা মোড় নিতে পারে। তেমনি, সমালোচনার স্থান নেই, বুদ্ধির চাতুর্য্য নেই– এরূপ বক্তা হলেন গ্রে হাউণ্ডের মত। অন্য আর প্রকারের বক্তার মধ্যে বাক্‌চাতুর্য থাকে বটে কিন্তু তার বক্তৃতার মধ্যে গভীরতা থাকে না। মূল আলোচ্য বিষয়ে আসার আগে বহু আনুষঙ্গিক বিষয়ের উল্লেখ করা ক্লান্তিকর, আদৌ কোনো আনুষঙ্গিক বিষয় উল্লেখ না করা নীরস ব্যাপার।

Bengali Meaning of 'Of Studies' by Francis Bacon. 'পাঠ সম্পর্কিত' -- ফ্রান্সিস বেকন

পাঠ সম্পর্কিত
ফ্রান্সিস বেকন

পড়াশুনা আমাদের আনন্দবর্ধন, অলঙ্করণ ও সামর্থ্যবর্ধন করে। মানুষ যখন একাকী থাকে তখন পুস্তকপাঠ তাকে আনন্দ দান করে, বাক্যালাপের সময় তার ভাষাকে অলঙ্কৃত ও মার্জিত করে, সত্যতা ও যাথার্থ্য নির্ণয়ে সাহায্য করে, তার স্বাভাবিক দক্ষতা ও কর্মশক্তিকে বৃদ্ধি করে। দক্ষ কর্মীগণ–সূক্ষ্ম বিচারবুদ্ধি প্রয়োগের দ্বারা বহু সমস্যার সমাধান করে থাকেন, কিন্তু একমাত্র শিক্ষিত ব্যক্তিগণই সঠিক উপদেশ ও সঠিক সিদ্ধান্ত দিতে পারেন। তবে অধ্যয়নে অতিমাত্রায় সময় ব্যয় করা আলস্যের লক্ষণ। বই-পড়া জ্ঞানকে আলাপ-আলোচনার অলঙ্কার রূপে অতিমাত্রায় ব্যবহার করা হল পাণ্ডিত্যের ভাগ, আর এই পুস্তক-লব্ধ জ্ঞানের ভিত্তিতে সর্বক্ষেত্রে সিদ্ধান্তে আসা হল পণ্ডিতদের স্বভাব বা বৈশিষ্ট্য। পুস্তক পাঠ বা অধ্যয়ন আমাদের সহজাত প্রবৃত্তি বা শক্তিগুলির মান উন্নত করতে পারে বটে, কিন্তু একমাত্র অভিজ্ঞতার মাধ্যমেই সেগুলি পূর্ণতা লাভ করতে পারে। মানুষের স্বাভাবিক প্রবৃত্তি বা শক্তিগুলি বন্য বা প্রকৃতি মধ্যস্থ গাছপালার মত। সেগুলিকে কাট-ছাঁট করে একটি বিশেষ রূপ দিতে হয়। অধ্যয়নের সাথে অভিজ্ঞতা মিলিত হয়ে আমাদেরকে নির্দেশ দেয় কি ভাবে আমাদের স্বভাব চরিত্র গড়ে তুলতে হবে, নিজেদেরকে রূপ দিতে হবে। দক্ষ কারিগরেরা শিক্ষাকে ঘৃণা বা অবজ্ঞা করে, সরলমনা লোকেরা একে প্রশংসাসূচক দৃষ্টিতে দেখে, কিন্তু প্রকৃত জ্ঞানীরাই এর সদ্ব্যবহার করে থাকেন। অধ্যয়ন প্রকৃত রূপে ফলপ্রসূ হতে গেলে তার সাথে অভিজ্ঞতার প্রয়োজন। অধ্যয়নের লক্ষ্য প্রতিপক্ষকে খণ্ডন করা নয়, কোন কিছুকে বিনা বিচারে গ্রহণ করা বা আলাপ-আলোচনার জন্য বক্তব্য বিষয় সংগ্রহ করা অধ্যয়নের লক্ষ্য নয়, এর প্রকৃত লক্ষ্য হল অধ্যয়নের বিষয়বস্তুকে বিচার-বিবেচনা পূর্বক গ্রহণ করা। এমন কতকগুলি পুস্তক আছে যেগুলি সম্পূর্ণরূপে গলাধঃকরণ করা প্রয়োজন। আর কিছু আছে যেগুলি ভালভাবে চর্বণ এবং হজম করতে হবে। কিছু বই শুধু অংশতঃ পাঠ করলেই হবে। আর কিছু বই তেমন গভীর আগ্রহ সহকারে না পাঠ করলেও চলবে, কিন্তু এমন কিছু অল্প সংখ্যক বই আছে যেগুলি অত্যন্ত মনোযোগ ও শ্রম সহকারে পাঠ করা প্রয়োজন। এমন কিছু বই আছে যেগুলি অন্য কাউকে দিয়ে পড়ালেও হবে এবং সেগুলির সংক্ষিপ্তসার করে নিলেও হবে। কিন্তু এই কথা সস্তাদরের বইয়ের ক্ষেত্রে প্রযোজ্য। সংক্ষিপ্তসার করা বই পরিশ্রুত জলের মত বিস্বাদ। পুস্তকপাঠ মানুষকে যথর্ণতালাভ করতে সাহায্য করে, বাক্যালাপ যে কোন পরিস্থিতির সম্মুখীন হবার উপযোগী করে তোলে, এবং লিখন মানুষকে সঠিক বা নিখুঁত করে তোলে। সেজন্য লেখালিখি কম করলে একজনকে প্রবল স্মৃতিশক্তি সম্পন্ন হতে হবে, বাক্যালাপ স্বল্প মাত্রায় করলে তাকে উপস্থিত বুদ্ধি সম্পন্ন হতে হবে এবং সে যদি কম পড়াশুনা করে তাকে ধূর্ত হতে হবে। তাহলে সে যা কিছু প্রকৃতই জানে না, সেগুলিও সে জানে বলে মনে হবে। ইতিহাস পাঠ মানুষকে জ্ঞানী করে, কবির কাবা তাকে রসিক করে তোলে। গণিত শাস্ত্র তাকে দেয় বৌদ্ধিক সূক্ষ্মতা, প্রাকৃতিক দর্শন অর্থাৎ বিজ্ঞান তার জ্ঞানের গভীরতা বৃদ্ধি করে, নীতিশাস্ত্র তাকে দেয় গাম্ভীর্য এবং তর্কবিদ্যা ও অলঙ্কার শাস্ত্র অন্যের সাথে বৌদ্ধিক বিচারে সাহায্য করে। অধ্যয়ন মানুষের চরিত্রকে প্রভাবিত করে জ্ঞান বা বুদ্ধির কোনে কুফল নেই বরং দেহের বিভিন্ন রোগের প্রতিকার রূপ যেমন বিভিন্ন ব্যায়াম আছে, তেমনি শিক্ষা যে কোন সমস্যার সমাধান করতে পারে; যথা—বুঝে পাথরের প্রতিকার হল বলক্ষেপণ, ফুসফুস ও হৃদরোগের হল তীরক্ষেপণ, পাকস্থলীর হল হাঁটা, মাথাব্যাথার হল অশ্বারোহণ। কোন মানুষের মন যদি চঞ্চল হয় তাহলে সে গণিতশাস্ত্র অধ্যয়ন করুক, কারণ এতে সমস্যাগুলি ধারাবাহিক ভাবে উপস্থাপিত হয়। কারও যদি সুগ্ম পার্থক্য বুঝতে অসুবিধা হয়, সে মধ্যযুগীয় দার্শনিকদের গ্রন্থ পাঠ করুক, কারণ তারা চুলচেরা বিচারে অভ্যস্ত। যদি কেউ কোনো বিষয় দীর্ঘক্ষণ মনে না রাখতে পারে, এবং তার বক্তব্য প্রমাণ করতে গিয়ে উপযুক্ত দৃষ্টান্ত দেখাতে সক্ষম না হয়, তাহলে সে উক্লিদের কোর্টের কেস-রিপোর্ট পাঠ করুক। সুতরাং বলা যায়, বিভিন্ন প্রকার মানসিক রোগের বিভিন্ন ঔষধ আছে।

Wednesday, March 2, 2022

“We are not of Alice, nor of thee, nor are we children at all. The children of Alice call Bartrum father. We are nothing; less than nothing, and dreams. We are only what might have been, and must wait upon the tedious shores of Lethe millions of ages before we have existence, and a name.”—Explain.

 These lines are extracted from Charles Lamb's autobiographical and romantic essay Dream Children. Lamb always indulged in reverie and fantasized the heavenly essence of family life which he never got in his life. Like a universal father. Lamb was telling a tale to his dream children about his imaginary courtship with Alice Winterton. Lamb could not forget his 'Calf-Love with Ann Simmons which lasted only for seven years. Actually, Alice is Ann Simrnons who had been Lamb's dream bride. In this line Lamb breaks his make-belief world and understood the reality that his children were only the possibilities, the future fruits.

Lamb realizes that his dream world is being shattered and that they cannot be his own children as they seemed to say that they are not the children of Charles Lamb. They are the fruits of his imagination, creatures of his fancy. Lamb fails to marry Ann. Naturally, they cannot be their children. They assure Lamb that if he would have waited for him upon the tedious shore of Lethe, the river of oblivion, they would be his own.