Tuesday, November 26, 2019

How did the Headman behave with Amal?

In the play the post office by R. N. Tagore, Headman is a character full of self-pride. He always makes others frightened. Everyone likes to be out of his sight. He also is very bad to a child like Amal. He underestimates Amal as Amal is waiting for the King's letter. Headman mocks Amal saying that king will surely send letter to Amal as Amall is very closer to the King. The imaginary words about the King from little child's mouth make the Headman very angry. He says to himself that Amal's uncle Madhav may have gone too far and so he always deals in King and rich people. He thinks that Madhav has got the audacity very much. The Headman wants to give a hard lesson to both Amal and Madhab. He at last threatens to complaint to the king so that the the letter from king arrives indeed. 

“Whenever the famous writers protest against this imposture, ...you are taught that they are atheists and libertines, murderers and scoundrels, and often it is made a criminal offence to buy or sell their books.”—Explain the lines.

Ans. These lines have been taken from George Bernard Shaw's essay Freedom. From the very old time, it is seen that the upper class always exploits the poor and the labourer class and here Shaw has stated how the rulers or master class try to delude the poor and the oppressed and make them believe that they are free. Philosophers, thinkers in many countries and in different ages have exposed the hypocritical claims and cheat of the ruling class and disclosed the real face of the ruling class. Also the well-thinkers of society in different ages wrote books on this issue. But the upper class has tried to stop the propagation of thoughts by making it a criminal offence to buy or sell their books. Their books are banned and the possessors of their books are punished. Not only that, their authors are depicted as atheists, murderers, libertines and scoundrels and anti-national. The rich people also decide to announce war against those people in any country, inspired by the thoughts of the great thinkers like Rousseau, Tom Paine, Karl Marx etc. England rulers anyhow want to suppress the revolutionaries. They just want to establish such a social system where there will be no question, revolution against them. In many wars in past, when England won the battle, it was announced that this victory would bring freedom to common people. It makes the writer surprised to see that those oppressed workers of England, instead of understanding the real meaning the freedom, believed all these false propagandas and cheered the army and the ruling class enthusiastically. 

short questions and answers of the essay Freedom by G.B. Shaw.

1. Who is a completely free person?

Ans: According to G.B.Shaw, a man who can do anything what he wants or like is a completely free person.

2. Is there any such person?

Ans. There can never be any such person because we cannot ignore slavery to Nature. We must spend at least two hours eating and drinking and two more hours in getting about from place to place. We are for half the day slaves to necessities which we cannot shirk. Hence there is no absolutely free person.

3. How does a man make others lose their freedom?

And. If one can get the upper-hand of other men by force, fraud or trickery, or even by teaching them that it is their religious duty tosacrifice their freedom to you, one makes a slave of others and makes them lose their freedom.

4. What are the natural jobs that cannot be shirked?

Ans. The natural jobs that cannot be shirked are eating, drinking, sleeping, washing, dressing and undressing. These are all what may be termed man's slavery to Nature

5. "So beware!" What should one beware of?

Ans. If one allows any person or class of persons to get the upper hand of you, he will shift all that part of his slavery to Nature that can be shifted on to your shoulders and one will have to work for about fourteen hours a day. Shaw asks us to beware of this situation.

6. What should be the object of all honest governments?

Ans. The object of all honest government should be to prevent some people from being imposed on by some other clever people and make the former work for the latter.

7. What is the object of most actual governments?

Ans. Instead of preventing some people being imposed on by others, most actual governments do the exact opposite. They enforce your slavery and call it freedom.

8. What is chattel slavery?

Ans. Chattel means personal belongings that are not land or building. Formerly even women were regarded as chattels. Negro slaves were regarded as personal property of the owner. Negro slavery is chattel slavery.

9. What is wage slavery? Why did it make its appearance?

Ans. When chattel slavery of the Negro sort became uneconomical it was replaced by wage slavery. Men were engaged and salary paid to them for their work. 

10. What do the newspapers assure you regarding election?

Ans. The newspapers assure you that your vote has decided the election and that this makes you a free citizen in a democratic country.

11. What is the most amazing thing about this newspaper propaganda?

Ans. The most amazing thing about the newspaper propaganda is that the people are foolish enough to believe them.

12. What sort of slavery is pleasant to man?

Ans. Man's slavery to Nature is pleasant Nature forces meant  eat and drink, but she makes eating and drinking so pleasant that when we can afford it we eat and drink to excess. We must sleep or go mad. But nature has made sleep so pleasant that we have great  difficulty in getting up in the morning.

13. What is the nature of man's slavery to man?

Ans. This sort of slavery is hateful to the body and the spirit. This slavery of man to man produces a state of continual civil war called the class war have peace unless the slavery of man to man is abolished?

14. Which British saint believed that we shall never have peace and stable society without slavery being abolished altogether?

Ans. Sir Thomas More held that we shall never have peace and stable society without slavery being abolished altogether.

15. What does the master class desperately try to prevent us from realising?

Ans. The master class makes the most desperate effort, through its parliament, schools and newspapers, to prevent us from realising our slavery 

16. What is Magna Charta?

Ans. It is a charter that King John was forced in 1215 to sign by the powerful Dukes, Lords etc. of England. In the charter the king agreed to respect the rights of every Englishman. It is one of the foundations of the British constitution.

17. What is the Bill of Rights?

Ans. William and Mary became King and Queen of England in 1689. At the very beginning of their reign the British Parliament passed a Declaration of Rights which came to be known as the Bill of Rights. This Bill limited the powers of the monarchs in many ways. 

18. What was the Spanish Armada?

Ans. It was a vast fleet of Spanish ships numbering about 130 with which Spain attacked England in 1588. When the fleet reached the English Channel a gale force wind dispersed it and Spain was totally defeated.

19. When was the Battle of Waterloo fought?

Ans. The battle of Waterloo was fought in Belgium in 1815 between the army of Napoleon and the combined army of England and Prussia. This was the final defeat of Napoleon after which he was exiled to Saint Helena. It is said that the discipline and training that they received in the playing fields of Eton helped the English officers to defeat Napoleon

20. What do you know of Trafalgar?

Ans. Trafalgar is a Spanish cape North-West of Gibraltar. In 1805 The British Navy under Nelson defeated the combined naval fleet of France and Spain. 

21. What are the Wages Boards?

Ans. Wages Boards are organizations set up by the British Government to determine the wages of factory workers and settle disputes regarding wages.

22. What are the Factory Acts?

Ans. The Factory Acts lay down rules and regulations regarding who protest against the imposture of the ruling class? factory work the length of working hours, pay and working conditions, and all other aspects of factory work. 

23. What are the people taught about the famous writer?

Ans. The people are taught that persons like Voltaire and who protest against the imposture of the ruling class are atheists and libertines, murderers and scoundrels. Often it is made a criminal offence to sell their books. 

24. What do the British ruling class do when people make a revolution?

Ans. When the people make a revolution, England immediately declares war against them and lends money to other powers to join her to crush the revolutionaries and restore the slave order. 

25. What happens when the revolution wins?

And. When the revolution wins, as for example in Russia in 1922 the fighting stops, but the abuse and calumnies continue till the revolutionised state grows into a first-rate military power. Then the British diplomats do an about turn and invite the leaders of the revolutionised state to dinner. 

26. How do the people of the master class delude themselves?

Ans. The people of the master class permit themselves to be deluded by all sorts of false propaganda. The man belonging to the upper class comes to believe that he is a very fine fellow superior to the common run of men whose duty it is to brush his clothes, carry his parcels and earn his income for him etc. 

27. What did Aristotle say about the maintenance of law and order?

Ans. Great men like Aristotle have held that law and order and government would be impossible unless the rulers are beautifully dressed and decorated, robed and uniformed, speaking with special accent, travelling in first class carriages etc. You must make men ignorant idolaters before they will become obedient workers and law abiding citizens

28. Do the common workers vote for the members of their own class?

Ans. Though ninety per cent of the ers are common workers, it is with the greatest difficulty that a few of them can be persuaded to vote for the members of their own class.

29. What happened when women were given the right to vote in England?

Ans. When women were given the right to vote, they did not vote for the women candidates of devoted and distinguished service. As a result they were all defeated. The women voters elected only one woman, a titled lady of great wealth.

30. How is your freedom restricted when you live in acivilized country?

Ans. When you live in a civilised country, your freedom is restricted by the police who oblige you to do this and not to do that, and to pay rates and taxes. If you do not obey these laws the courts will imprison you, and if you go too far, will kill you.

31. What happens if the laws are reasonable andimpartially administered? 

Ans. If the laws are reasonable and applied impartially, you have no reason to complain, for they increase your freedom by protecting you against assault, highway robbery and disorder. 

32. What is, as per Shaw, the far more intimate compulsion on you in society as it is now constituted?

Ans. In society as it is now constituted, the far more intimate compulsion on you is that of the landlord and that of your employer. The landlord may refuse to let you live on his land if you go to chapel instead of to church or if you vote for anyone but his nominee or if you open a shop or practise osteopathy. Your employer can turn you into the street at any moment and you may be obliged to join the band of the unemployed.

33. Why sane Trade Unionism would never support more than one big strike at a time?

Ans. If all the Trades Union struck work at the same time, it would extinguish the human race in a week and the workers would be the first to die for they do not have sufficient savings to see them through the period of strike. Hence sane Trade Unionism would sanction only one big strike at a time. All the other Trades Union would work overtime to support the striking workers.

34. Which character of Shakespeare said : Put money in they purse?

Ans. In Shakespeare's drama Othello, the villain Iago said this.

35. What is the old English name of Freedom?

Ans. Leisure is the old English name of freedom.

36. Why do the English people not know what is freedom?

Ans. The English people do not know what freedom is for they never had any.

37. What happens if a man suddenly comes into a fortune?

Ans. It is often found that if a man suddenly comes into a fortune, he loses his happiness and health and finally his life.

38. What is a conundrum?

Ans. A conundrum is a confusing problem or question that is very difficult to solve.

Why the Reformers like Voltaire, Rousseau and Karl Marx got adverse response from the society?

Answer:   In 1830, when Queen Victoria started her long reign in British history, England got a new status. At that time though the world of 1830's still looked back, England with  new  ideas, was growing fast. G. B. Shaw, a late Victorian writer showed in his essay Freedom, the condition of exploited common man and observed  different revolutions of the Victorian age against the slavery and exploitation that poor endured through the ages. The common man was always made fool by the upper class people in the society. Though They performed all kinds of job, they did not get the respect or courtesy. If they raised their voice, they are told that poor people got most of the benefits because they did not have to give tax and the upper classes have to pay tax from their earning. Besides, they had the Factory Acts, the Wages Boards, and got free education etc. Also they were cajoled by saying that they had the right to vote to select the ruler. They do not understand the real meaning of freedom because they had to remain busy to earn their food and shelter. So when the philosophers, politicians and reformers like Voltaire, Rousseau and Karl Marx of the society came ahead and encouraged and helped them to live a better life. But the ruler class did not take it in good way and they established a bad image of the reformers among minds of common people and  they made the common men think that those reformers were not good people at all. In order to gain their own sake, the ruler class Either banned them from the society or suppressed their voice. Even their followers, disciples could not raise their voice. As a result, the slave system prevailed in the British nation. According to Shaw, independence was meaningless unless people of the country understood that freedom.

"Naturally, the master class, through its parliaments and schools and newspapers, make the most desperate attempt to prevent us from realising our slavery"--Explain.

Answer:  The statement is taken from George Bernard Shaw's essay 'Freedom'. Here Shaw tries to establish or convey the fact that the master class, i.e. the rulers, always try their best to prevent common people from realising that we are slave to them. Them make attempt to prove it through the parliaments, the educational institutions and the news media. Everywhere we learn from the childhood that our land (England) is the land of the free because our forefathers won for us our freedom when they forced King John to sign the Magna Charta. They protected our freedom when they defeated the Spanish Armada. They did the same when they cut off the head of the autocratic ruler King Charles. When they obliged King William to accept the Bill of Rights and thus they strengthened the rights and freedom of the people of England. Besides England defeated Napoleon in the battles of Trafalgar and Waterloo. In twentieth century many country like Germany, Austria, Russia got freedom and their countrymen believed that the people of those countries gained political freedom. But nothing of that kind happened. Only one set of rulers was replaced by another and the common man got no benefit. When the people protest against it, they are told that they themselves are the authors of their miseries for they have the right to vote. They elect the persons who rule the country. Not only that, the people have the factory Acts, the Wages Boards, free dole, free education etc. So, What more do they expect? The people are free but they do not know the proper use of their freedom. That is why they suffer. But the bitter truth is that the ruling class control all the will of common people. In this way the master class tries to hide the truth that the poor are subject to the wishes of the rich.

Monday, November 25, 2019

"Sen Trade Unionism would never sanction more than one big strike at a time with all the other trades working overtime to support it."--Bring out the context and elaborate it.

Answer: This sentence belongs to G.B. Shaw's essay "Freedom". Trade unions are formed only to protect the interest of the workers. It is always seen that the masters or the employers of any mill or factory torture, exploit their workers and very often they throw out workers from their job at any time. Being jobless, the employees have only one option open. They only can complaint against it to their trade union. And the trade union has one weapon that is strike. That trade union declares strike against the employer and stops working till the employer accepts their demand. 

The writer has also told us about general strike of workers that is held by all trade unions at the same time. According to him it is nothing but a folly because the workers who stop working, must have extra money to spend those unemployed days. But as they don't have money, The other workers of different trade union have to work overtime to support the workers striking for demands. So the trade union should never sanction more than one strike at a time.

What advices does Shaw give to wipe out exploitation from the society? / How can slavery be ended?

Answer: G.B. Shaw, in his essay, has superbly defined the freedom. According to him, nobody is totally free. Besides men's slavery to nature, the writer has pointed out that only rich people get the taste of freedom by depending completely on the shoulder of the other people who work for them. They are called slave. Our writer is against the system and wants to abolish it from our society because no master can be good enough to his slave. In order to do that everyone should be careful at the time of voting while choosing the right person who will rule the country. Everybody of a country should get justice and proper right to live. Everyone should get equal education. Besides, the total income of a country should be distributed in a proper way. The master must not regulate the lifestyle of his employee. Nation's Police force have to maintain it's a law and order not giving special favour to anyone. Every employee must get a balanced life where he will work and at the same time he can get free time to enjoy life. The most important fact to abolish slavery is that everyone should do his own share of work with his own hand and brain. only thus the slavery system from the society can be abolished.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

“Now, though this prodigious mass of humbug is meant to delude the enslaved masses only, it ends in deluding the master class much more completely.”—Explain the line.

Answer: This line occurs in George Bernard Shaw's essay “Freedom”. According to the author, the ruling class first tries to delude the poor people by false propaganda that they have got the real freedom when they are being shamelessly exploited and cheated by the master class. But finally, it is found that this false prodigious propaganda deludes the master class much more than the common people who are supposed to be deluded. But how does this strange thing happen? The essayist has explained it superbly. According to him, the mind of a boy from the family of a gentleman, or ruling class is formed at a preparatory school for the sons of gentlemen. Then that boy continues his organon at a public school and university. Here that boy is so much influenced by falsified and distorted history and dishonest political and economic theories that he is the boy comes to believe that he begins to believe that he is a fine fellow. He is always superior to the ordinary men. He also begins to believe that ordinary people’s duty it is to brush his clothes, carry his parcels and the ordinary men should act as his servants. That boy think that he should occupy high places in society. And at any cost he must keep his position as master. Even great philosopher Aristotle believed that law, order and government would be impossible unless the rulers are beautifully dressed and decorated, robed and uniformed, speaking with a special accent, travelling in first class coaches. The rulers must boast of a lifestyle that would produce an impression of godlike superiority on the minds of the common man. Thus these deluded knowledge in school, college, university begins to register so much permanent impression in the minds of the boys of the ruling class, that they begin to think themselves as godlike and they are born to rule the common people with order.

Monday, November 18, 2019

How, according to Shaw, does the government force us to be their slave calling it freedom? /OR/ “The object of all honest governments should b to prevent your being imposed on this way. But the object of most actual governments I regret to say, is exactly the opposite.”—Explain the lines.

Answer: These lines occur in the essay “Freedom” written by George Bernard Shaw. He sees that every man is being cheated or exploited by some men or exploiters and he thinks that it is every government’s duty to prevent its countrymen from the exploiters. But it is seen that most of the governments do the opposite. They are seen to help the exploiters. The essayist says that few men always try to cheat other by force, trick or fraud even by saying that everyone should sacrifice their freedom to the exploiters because it is their religious duty. Thus, the dishonest men fulfill their own interest. In every society there exists a government whose duty is to abolish this man to man exploitation. But Shaw sees that the government is far from their duty. Besides the government, with excellent verbal jugglery, will call this slavery “freedom” and force us to be slave of others. Even the government calls the “pain” of us “pleasure” and thus transforms “pain” into “pleasure”. If anyone protests this slavery, he or she is told by the government to quit job of slavery and search for new job wherever he want. But he cannot get a new job anywhere. So unwillingly he or she must work in their job. On the other hand, if anyone raises their voice against this careless, cruel government, he or she is told that in every five years, election gives him freedom to choose or elect his government among so many contestants. So, whatever that elected government decides, he or she must obey. Thus, always the common men are getting fooled by the government.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

"Now mark another big difference between the natural slavery of man to nature and the unnatural slavery of man to man"---Explain. /Or,/ What difference does the author state between slavery to nature and slavery to man?

This context belongs to G.B. Shaw's essay Freedom. Here the author tells us two types of slavery--one, natural slavery of man to nature and another, unnatural slavery of man to man and also tells us the difference between them. The expression 'natural slavery' means force of nature to which every man must submit. It is nature that forces everyone to eat, drink, sleep for without performing them we cannot servive. But though we cannot but submit to nature's forces, Nature has made her forces pleasant for us. So sometimes we eat and drink too much. And also nature has made sleeping so pleasant that we sometimes find it difficult to get up early in the morning. Marriage and building up families are also instances of our natural slavery. So instead of resenting this forces, we take satisfaction and pleasure in them.

But the second type of slavery that of man to man is very opposite to this. This type of slavery is very much hateful to the author. People of one class make another class's people their slave to fulfill their own sake. No man can be good enough to be another man's master. This type of slavery produces a state of continual civil war called class war between the slaves and their Masters. To the author man to man slavery is a social evil. In this case poor people are the sufferers. In the modern days this has taken the form of conflict between the trades union and employers' federations. In man to man slavery, there is no freedom of time, salary, or tenure of job. All honest governments should take measures to prevent this unnatural slavery but the opposite thing always happens. The government also regulate their country men with laws in the name of freedom. Sir Thomas More believed that this conflict can only end with the abolition of slavery and when every man shall do his share of work with his own hands and not attempt to put it on anyone else.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Which three apparitions(spirit) do the Witches show Macbeth?

The first apparition/spirit is an armed head, summoned to warn Macbeth that Macduff is coming back to Scotland to ruin him. The second apparition is of a bloody child and it tells Macbeth that no man born of a woman can do him harm. The third apparition is that of a child wearing a crown and holding a tree. It declares that until the Birnam wood comes to Dunsinane, Macbeth cannot be ruined. This gives Macbeth great confidence. 

How do Lady Macbeth and Macbeth plan to kill Duncan?

To commit the murder of Duncan, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth plan to get Duncan’s two chamberlains drunk so they will black out. And then Macbeth will stab him. The next morning they will blame the murder on the chamberlains, who will be defenseless, as they will remember nothing. 

Tuesday, November 5, 2019




5. "Sen Trade Unionism would never sanction more than one big strike at a time with all the other trades working overtime to support it."--Bring out the context and elaborate it.


6. What advices does Shaw give to wipe out exploitation from the society? / How can slavery be ended?



8.Why the Reformers like Voltaire, Rousseau and Karl Marx got adverse response from the society?


9. “Whenever the famous writers protest against this imposture, ...you are taught that they are atheists and libertines, murderers and scoundrels, and often it is made a criminal offence to buy or sell their books.”—Explain the lines.


Why does the essayist G. B. Shaw say that no one can be completely free? OR- What factors restrict us to get complete freedom?

* In the essay "Freedom", the essayist G. B. Shaw has presented a fact of freedom of human being. He states that there is nothing that may be called absolute freedom. No one can enjoy the taste of complete freedom. Shaw has superbly establishes this very thought in this essay and presents few instances to prove it. He also shows the factors that are causing limitation to the absolute freedom of man.

* Firstly, essayist believes that a man can not have absolute freedom. Man is bound to nature's rule. though man works in field or office for their livelihood as per their choice. That may be for himself or for his employers. These works depend on their will. But few things that we have to do or perform whether we want or not. We have to relax, eat, drink, sleep, wash and dress. This is a necessity to us that is caused by Nature or Society. We have to follow that rule otherwise we have to live in isolation or we will be rejected by society. We cannot avoid these natural actions. Though apparently we feel ourselves free, but actually we are slaves to nature.

* Secondly, even a tenant is not a free man. His or her landlord will force him or her to practice a specific religion, caste, ritual and also he would like to force the tenant to vote for landlord's selected candidate.

* Thirdly, even the employee does not get relief from his employer. The employee does not have any freedom to dress up, job hour, even the tenure of job. The employer will select everything regarding his job.

* Fourthly, if a man works in office or factory for twelve hours, he gets no time for himself  and he has to take rest in rest twelve hours because it is natural for human to take rest. If he protests or complains against it to their trade union, no benefit will come out. Only they can call for strike and that will lead to no income and ever starvation. So, also in these cases man has no freedom.

*  Fifthly, suppose a person saves four hours from his 12 hours job and plans to go go to a film or to read a book, he must spend money. Or to save that money if he goes to bed for rest, that 'free' time goes for relaxation not for recreation.

*  Sixthly, one must abide by the rules of society to avoid law and police. Though a man votes to select the leader of nation but when the vote is over it is seen that just the leader has changed but the status of common people has not changed. They cannot protest because they have cast their vote. So the common people remain slaves.

Friday, November 1, 2019

“Does not seem to be a bad fellow”—Who said this? Who was the ‘fellow’ here? How did the fellow look? How did the speaker finally decide to keep him as servant?

  • Mr. Sivasanker said this. 

  • Here the fellow was Sidda who had come to Sivasanker’s house in search of job. 

  • Sidda looked tidy and did not seem worse than the other servants.

  • When Sidda came to Sivasanker’s house in search of job, Sivasanker asked Sidda where he had been working before. Sidda replied that he was in a doctor’s house near the market and he became jobless as the doctor had left the town. When Sivasanker was not satisfied by the answers of Sidda, he called his wife to make up his mind. Getting approved from his wife and his daughter Leela, Sivasanker finally decided to keep Sidda as their servant. 




12. Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about the problem of eve-teasing.

13. Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about the problem of reckless driving.

14. Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about problem of population explosion.

15. Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about the problem caused by bursting crackers during festivals.

16. Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about the bad effects of felling of trees

17. Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about unhealthy food sold in and around school campus.

18. Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about the problem of Global Warming.

19. Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about the problem of primary school going children for carrying heavy school bags.

20. Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about the problem caused by insufficient street light in locality.

21. Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about the problem caused by waterlogging in our locality.

22. Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about your concern over the crisis caused from surge of Corona and suggest suggestion to stop it.

23. Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about the problem of drug addiction.

28. Write a letter to the Editor of an English daily about


14. Application