Wednesday, March 31, 2021

REPORT ON WATER CRISIS IN INDIA

 


WATER CRISIS IN INDIA

--by a staff reporter,

Kolkata, 31/03/2021: Water crisis is the most threatening issue of today’s world and our country is not free from it. Every year, thousands of people living in village or remote areas, die for the lack of drinking water. The problem becomes worst during summer. Men and women had to go miles to fetch the drinking water. In today’s India, it is beyond imagination that people have to die due to lack of safe drinking water. According to the stats, 40 % of our population will not get adequate drinking water by the year 2030. This is happening for many reasons. People do not use water as per their needs. They waste excessive water while bathing, washing clothes even while doing nothing. Besides, the water selling companies are fetching gallons and gallons of underground water illegally. As a result, the level of underground water is getting decreased. Thought India Government has taken so many initiatives to supply water through pipe-line to every household before 2024, it is not sure whether those initiatives will get implemented. Government should make the country men more aware of it and make them realize the importance of water. Besides all should be entertained to store rain water, recycle waste water and should be encouraged not to consume excessive water, only then we can left safe drinking water for our next generation.

Monday, March 29, 2021

Write a letter to the editor of an English daily about the problem of drug addiction.



To
The Editor,
The Telegraph,
Kolkata—01.

Sir,

     I shall be highly obliged if you kindly allow me a little space in the columns of your highly esteemed daily so that I may ventilate my opinion to draw the attention of the due authority about the problem of drug addiction.

     Drug addiction is one of the major problems of today’s world. It is a tragedy of the time that thousands of young men and women, in the prime of life, fall victims to this harmful habit of taking drugs, marring their prospects of bright careers and lives. Most of the people start taking drugs like marijuana, brown sugar etc out of curiosity, often under the influence of their friends. Others take drug to overcome boredom, fatigue, depression or frustration due to lack of affection or love from near and dear ones. Their easy availability, no doubt, results in large scale drug abuse. This problem now has reached a state of emergency in the country. It not only cleans up pockets, but also harms their health and nervous system. As a result, they often commit crimes even murder. Besides, due to it, different antisocial activities like snatching, rape, eve-teasing etc are increasing. Common people can not move freely during night and girls and women can not go out for personal reason. So many brilliant students are getting nipped in but due to the drug addiction.

     I think that the problem needs to be tackled by the government systematically in order to wean the youngsters away from the destructive habit and encourage healthy diversions. Also, the guardians should be more careful and lovable to their child otherwise the total young generation of the nation will be destroyed.

Thanking you,

Yours faithfully,
Riya Barman

Dated Nadia,
Nrisinghapur ,
The 28th of March, 2021



Sunday, March 28, 2021

Write a letter to the editor of an English daily expressing your concern over the crisis caused from the surge of Corona in the country and suggesting measures for the people and the Government.



To
The Editor,
The Telegraph,
Kolkata—01.

Sir,
     I shall be highly obliged if you kindly allow me a little space in the columns of your highly esteemed daily so that I may ventilate my opinion to draw the attention of the due authority about the crisis caused from the surge of Corona in the country.

     We all know that the whole world including our country is suffering from the newly born deadly Corona disease. The scientists of all over the world are trying to discover its vaccine. Government has implemented lockdown all over the country and advised all of us to maintain the Covid rules and regulation to stop the spread of Corona. But we are very much concern over the matter that so many people are not obeying the Covid rules. They are gathering everywhere without any reason and even they are not using masks. Using hand sanitizer and washing hands at regular intervals are rare to see among those careless people. As a result, thousands of people are getting affected by this virus and hundreds of them are dying from it. It has been becoming a threat for the common people only for the carelessness of some people.

     Under such circumstances, when it is hard to be alive, the government should be more active to implement the rules. Besides, they must make common people more and more conscious about this pandemic situation. Only then this situation can be controlled until the vaccine is discovered.

Thanking you,
Yours faithfully,
Arup Halsana
Dated Nadia,
Nrisinghapur ,
The 28th of March, 2021





Thursday, March 25, 2021

COMMERCIAL LEAFLET WRITING



ADVERTISEMENT WRITING




1. Situation Vacant types: Advertisement for stenographer (চাকরি প্রার্থী জন্য)

SITUATION VACANT

Wanted a Stenographer for an export company. Qualification – graduate, age – 25-30 years. Typing speed 35 wpm, short hand speed 95 wpm. Preference to those who can handle computer. Salary negotiable. Apply with complete bio-data by 20th March’18 to Secretary, Orient Export House,Santipur, Nadia. PH: 9932160978


2. Advertisement for Accommodation (জায়গা ভাড়া চাই)

ACCOMMODATION WANTED

Metals & Minerals Corp. of India requires suitable accommodation with 4 bed rooms, 1 kitchen, 1 toilet on rent for using as a guesthouse. Should be located in Santipur Proper area with excellent facilities and uninterrupted water & electricity. Nearby market must. Owners please contact Madan Lal, Executive Manager, PH: 01123333333.


3. Educational institutions: Advertisement for new course. (শিক্ষা প্রতিষ্ঠান )

LANGUAGE LEARNING COURSE

Language Guide Centre announces the commencement of its new courses in Japanese, French and German. Duration – 3months. Eligibility –Higher Secondary Pass. Excellent faculty. Computerized training facilities available. Incentives for brilliant students. Send your applications by 1st March’18 to Principle, Language Guide Centre, Santipur, Nadia or contact at 9932160978. 
 

4. Missing person: Advertisement (নিখোঁজ)

GIRL MISSING

Girl missing named Priyanka Khanna, 12 years, 4’3” tall, fair, slim built, wearing black t-shirt and blue jeans since 2.2.2018 from M. G. Road, Kolkata. She had a cut mark on her left cheek. Speaks in Bengali and Hindi. Informers will be rewarded. Inform at 9932160978.


5. Write an advertisement for the sale of a flat in Krishnanagar.(বিক্রির জন্য)

FLAT FOR SALE

A well-decorated, well-furnished, all mosaic, north facing 2000 sq. ft. flat on 3rd floor with balcony and attached bathroom is for sale in Krishnagar. Car parking and generator facilities available. Rs. 30 Lakhs on offer. To buy and for more details contact—Latif Islam, Krishnagar, Nadia, Mob. 9932160978. 


6. A school teacher wants to advertise for suitable bride. Now write a newspaper advertisement for him.

WANTED BRIDE

Maithil Brahmin school teacher, M.A in English, 26 years, 5’9’’ , fair and handsome, staying in his own flat in Salt Lake, seeks a slim, fair, beautiful, educated bride of a respectable family. No caste bar. Send details along with photo, blood group and mobile no to anitbarui@gmail.com. (9933123456)


7. An established groom is wanted for an educated nurse . Write an advertisement.


WANTED GROOM

A Malo well educated aged 35, height 5’2’’, fair, beautiful woman working as a permanent nurse in Burdwan Sadar Hospital, seeks a real handsome, established, educated groom of a respectable family. No caste bar. Send details along with photo, blood group and mobile no to moonlight@gmail.com. (9933123456)


Tuesday, March 23, 2021

RULES OF TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCE

TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCE 



1. Too…to = So… that: ‘too’ এর স্থানে 'so' বসে, 'to' এর স্থানে 'that' বসে। That এরপরে Subject + cannot/ could not আনতে হবে। তারপর বাকি অংশঅপরিবর্তিত ভাবে বসবে। EX: He is too lazy to work. Ans: He is so lazy that he cannot work.


2. NOT ONLY..…BUT ALSO : দুটি বাক্যের একই অবস্থানে থাকা দুটি শব্দ বা শব্দ সমষ্টি কে জোর দিয়ে বোঝানোর জন্য ব্যবহৃত হয়।(Rule: দুটি বাক্যের মধ্যে মিল অংশ টুকু লিখতে হবে। তারপর NOT ONLY লিখে প্রথম বাক্যের বাকি অংশ, BUT ALSO লিখে দ্বিতীয় বাক্যের বাকি অংশ লিখতে হবে) EX: He is wise. He is brave. Ans: He is not only wise but also brave.


3. BUT = HELP (OMIT ‘HELP’): বাক্যে অবস্থিত BUT এর পরিবর্তে Help হবে।এর পরে অবস্থিত verb এরসাথে -ingযুক্ত হবে।বাক্যের অন্যান্য অংশ অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে।EX: He cannot but weep. ANS: He cannot help weeping.


4. ONLY =NONE BUT/ NOTHING BUT:
বাক্যে ONLY এর স্থানে NONE BUT/ NOTHING BUT বসবে।বাকি অংশ অপরিবর্তিত থাকে। EX: Only he can do it. ANS: None but he can do it.


5. NEGATIVE TO AFFIRMATIVE: বাক্যে অবস্থিত NOT/ NEVER তুলতে হবে।যেকোনো একটি শব্দ কে বিপরীত করতে হবে। EX: He is not tall. ANS: He is short.


6. AFFIRMATIVE TO NEGATIVE: বাক্যে NOT/ NEVER আনতেহবে। যেকোনো একটি শব্দ কে বিপরীত করতে হবে। EX: He is tall. ANS: He is not short.


7. EXCLAMATORY TO ASSERTIVE: HOW, WHAT, ALAS, HURRAH ইত্যাদি থাকলে তার পরিবর্তে VERY, GREAT, IT IS SAD THAT বসে। বিস্ময় বোধক চিহ্ন উঠে ফুলস্টপ বসে। Rule: SUB + AUX + VERY/ GREAT/ IT IS SAD THAT + ADJECTIVE.


8. ASSERTIVE TO INTERROGATIVE: NOT না থাকলে আনতে হবে।NOT থাকলে তুলে দিতে হবে।NEVER থাকলে EVER লিখতে হবে। তদ্বিপরীত।(RULE: AUX + SUB+ প্রশ্নের বাকি অংশ?) EX: HE IS A TEACHER. ANS: IS NOT HE A TEACHER?


9. INTERROGATIVE TO ASSERTIVE: NOT না থাকলে আনতে হবে। NOT থাকলে তুলে দিতে হবে।NEVER থাকলে EVER লিখতে হবে।তদ্বিপরীত। (RULE: SUB + AUX + VERB+ OBJ ) EX: CAN HE DO THIS?, ANS: HE CAN NOT DO THIS.


10. INTERCHANGE OF PARTS OF SPEECH: এর নির্দিষ্টকোনো নিয়ম নেই।বাক্যটিকে ভালো ভাবে পড়ে, তার শব্দ গুলির রূপ এমন ভাবে পরিবর্তনকরতে হবে যাতে বাক্যের মূল অর্থ পরিবর্তন না হয়। EX: HE IS BEAUTIFUL (Noun) ANS: HE HAS BEAUTY.


11. AS SOON AS = NO SOONER HAD:
‘As soon as’ এর স্থানে ‘No sooner had’ বসবে। এর পর verb এর তৃতীয় রুপ বসবে। বাকি অংশ অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে।


Rules of Splitting.


SPLITTING

 

একটি বাক্যকে দুই বা তার বেশি বাক্যে  ভাঙ্গাকে SPLITTING বলে। ভাঙ্গা প্রতিটি বাক্য কে সরল বাক্য হতে হবে।প্রতিটি বাক্যের শুরুতে সাবজেক্ট থাকবে এবং ক্রিয়াপদ যথাযথ রূপে লিখতে হবে। 

উদাহরন

1. Coming here, he went to the room.

🔰 He came here. He went to the room.

 

এই প্রশ্ন টি তে 'coming' হল non-finite verb এবং 'went' হল finite verb. স্প্লিট করার সময়, সবসময় non-finite verb কে finite verb-এ রূপান্তরিত করতে হবে এবং সঠিক Tense অনুযায়ী লিখতে হবে। যেমন- প্রশ্নের প্রথম অংশে Subject নেই তাই Subject (He) এনে non-finite verb 'coming' কে Tense অনুযায়ী 'came' লেখা হল।  

 

2. He stopped the bus to ride. 

🔰 He stopped the bus. He wanted to ride.

 

3. The bird, getting old, went to the hill.

🔰 The bird got old. It went to the hill.

 

RULES OF 'WH' QUESTION FORMATION

‘WH’- QUESTION FORMATION


📘 Rule 1: WH+ AUX + SUB+ VERB+ …..…?
(AUX না থাকলে DO/ DID/ DOES আনতে হবে।)
  
📘 Rule 2: WHO  দিয়ে প্রশ্ন হলে SUBJECT এর স্থানে WHO বসিয়ে বাকি অংশ অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে। শেষে জিজ্ঞাসা চিহ্ন বসবে।)

 উদাহরণ
 1. He went to Kolkata. (Where) 
👉 Where did he go?
 
2. Leela threw the ball. (What)
👉 What did Leela throw?
 
3. He made the crime in the morning. (When)
👉 When did he make the crime?
 
4. Sidda can touch the moon. (What)
👉 What can Sidda touch?
 
5. He is going to Italy. (Where)
👉 Where is he going?
 
6. Lady gave the beggar a bowl of soup. (Whom)
👉 Whom did the lady give a bowl of soup?
 
7. This was his book. (Whose) 
👉 Whose book is this?

8. He went three for safety. (Why)
👉 Why did he go there?

9. They have done this? (Who)
👉 Who have done this?

 
 How দিয়ে WH - এর নিয়ম

* দূরত্ব বোঝাতে = How far
* উচ্চতা বোঝাতে = How tall
* পরিমাণ বোঝাতে = How much
* সংখ্যা বোঝাতে = How many
* সময়  বোঝাতে = How long
* সাধারন ক্ষেত্রে (কিভাবে বোঝাতে)= How দিয়ে হয়।
 
1.  Kolkata is 100 kms away. (How)
👉 How far is Kolkata?
 
2.  The house is 100m tall. (How)
👉 How tall is the house?

3. He bought 2kg sugar. (How)
👉 How much sugar did he buy?

4. He got three pens. (How)
👉 How many pens did he get?

5. They are playing for 3 hours. (How)
👉 How long are they playing?

6. The boys opened the box with a stick. (How)
👉 How did the boys open the box?


Monday, March 22, 2021

RULES OF COMPOUND JOINING


JOINING ( COMPOUND )

📙   CUMULATIVE CONJUNCTION

1. AND = সাধারন বাক্যের ক্ষেত্রে

2. AS WELL AS = দুটি বাক্যে একই সাবজেক্ট / কর্তার দুটি ভিন্ন কাজ বা গুনের উল্লেখ থাকলে।

3. NOT ONLY..…BUT ALSO
= দুটি বাক্যের একই অবস্থানে থাকা দুটি শব্দ বা শব্দ সমষ্টিকে জোর দিয়ে বোঝানোর জন্য ব্যবহৃত হয়।(Rule: দুটি বাক্যের মধ্যে মিল অংশ টুকু লিখতে হবে। তারপর NOT ONLY লিখে প্রথম বাক্যের বাকি অংশ, BUT ALSO লিখে দ্বিতীয় বাক্যের বাকি অংশ লিখতে হবে)


📙   ALTERNATIVE CONJUNCTION

1. EITHER … OR = দুটি বাক্যের মধ্যে মিল অংশ টুকু লিখতে হবে। তারপর EITHER লিখে প্রথম বাক্যের বাকি অংশ, OR লিখে দ্বিতীয় বাক্যের বাকি অংশ লিখতে হবে।

2. NEITHER…NOR = NOT তুলতে হবে। দুটি বাক্যের মধ্যে মিল অংশ টুকু লিখতে হবে। তারপর NEITHER লিখে প্রথম বাক্যের বাকি অংশ, NOR লিখে দ্বিতীয় বাক্যের বাকি অংশ লিখতে হবে।


📙   ADVERSATIVE CONJUNCTION

1. BUT/STILL/ YET
= দুটি বাক্যের মধ্যে বিপরীত বিষয় থাকলে।


📙   ILLATIVE  CONJUNCTION

1. SO = দুটি বাক্যের মধ্যে কারন / ফলাফলের সম্পর্ক থাকলে

2. THEREFORE = দুটি বাক্যের মধ্যে কারন / ফলাফলের সম্পর্ক থাকলে 


3.FOR = দুটি বাক্যের মধ্যে কারন / ফলাফলের সম্পর্ক থাকলে 

 

RULES OF SIMPLE JOINING

JOINING ( SIMPLE )

1. INFINITIVE (TO)
  = যখন প্রথম বাক্যের কর্মের উদ্যেশ্য দ্বিতীয় বাক্যে থাকে তখন ‘To’ দিয়ে যুক্ত করতে হয়।(প্রথম বাক্য + To + দ্বিতীয় বাক্যের ক্রিয়া থেকে বাকি অংশ )
 
EX: He went to Kalna. He wanted to buy toys.
ANS: He went to Kalna to buy toys..


2. PARTICIPLE (ING) = যখন দুটি বাক্যে পরপর দুটি কাজ বোঝায় তখন PARTICIPLE (ING) দিয়ে যুক্ত করতে হয়। ( যে বাক্যের কাজ আগে হবে সেই বাক্যের VERB এর সাথে ING বসিয়ে উত্তর শুরু হবে। ফুলস্টপ উঠে যাবে। দ্বিতীয় বাক্য মোটামুটি অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে। ) 

EX: He went to Kalna. He bought toys.
ANS: Going to Kalna, he bought toys.
 

3. GERUND (ING) = ক্রিয়ার সাথে ING যুক্ত হয়ে সেটি NOUN হিসাবে আচরণ করে। 

EX: She was walking. It was funny.
ANS: Her walking was funny.

4. NOUN/ PHRASE IN APPOSITION ( ,) = এই ক্ষেত্রে বাক্যের NOUN PHRASE পাশাপাশি বসে মাঝখানে ‘,’ বসিয়ে তাদের পরিচয় বোঝানো হয়। 

EX: Ram was a teacher. He gave me a pen.
ANS: Ram, a teacher, gave me a pen. 
 

5. NOMINATIVE ABSOLUTE (HAVING) = দুটি বাক্যের মধ্যে যখন ব্যকরনগত/ বিষয়গত মিল থাকে না। (HAVING + 1ST SUB + 1ST VERB-3 + 2ND SENTENCE) 
 
 EX: The sun rose. The fog disappeared.
ANS Having the sun risen, the fog disappeared.