Wednesday, September 26, 2018

GRAMMAR




1. VOICE  CHANGE


2.  NARRATION CHANGE


3. JOINING


4. SPLITTING


5. TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCE


6. ARTICLE


7. PREPOSITION


8. PARTS OF SPEECH


9. TENSE AND TIME


10. PUNCTUATION

11. WBCHSE -CLASS : XII GRAMMAR SET


ALL TYPES OF WRITINGS FOR ALL CLASSES


ABOUT THE POEM "UPON WESTMINSTER BRIDGE"


COMPOSED ON:

31/07/1802


PUBLICATION:

IN "POEMS IN TWO VOLUMES" IN 1807

TYPE OF POEM:

PETRARCHAN SONNET 


STRUCTURE:

IT CONTAINS 14 LINES (OCTAVE + SESTET) AND FOLLOWS - ABBA  ABBA  CD  CD  CD RHYME SCHEME.

SUMMARY OF THE POEM:

While crossing the Westminster Bridge, the poet William Wordsworth, lover of nature and solitude, is very much impressed by the purity and calmness of the nature in the early morning. He declares that the scene of London is the most beautiful scene he has ever seen. He thinks that as if the city is wearing the morning’s beauty—“This City now doth like a garment wear”. The full city is stepped in morning’s soft light. There is neither any fog in the atmosphere nor any vehicle on the road. Ships temples, domes, theatres, towers all are in quietness and “open unto the fields and to the sky”. The valley, rock, hill all are glittering in the soft light. But now those are not as beautiful as London’s morning’s beauty. The river Themes flows slowly “at his own sweet will”. The poet portraits the London city so magnificently as if it is blissfully sleeping before another busy. 

CHARACTERS:

POET AND HIS SISTER DOROTHY




********************************************************************************

ABOUT THE POET

ALL DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS OF "UPON WESTMINSTER BRIDGE"

MCQ QUESTIONS OF "UPON WESTMINSTER BRIDGE"


M.C.Q 

1. Upon Westminster Bridge is a—a) elegy, b) sonnet, c) lyric d) ballad ⇰b

2. This poem is written by—a) Keats b) Wordsworth d) Shelley c) Coleridge. ⇰b

3. The city is wearing garment of—a) fog, b) smoke c) beauty, d) rain ⇰c

4. The city looks—a) dark, b) ugly c) very beautiful d) normal ⇰ c

5. The ‘mighty heart’ refers to—a) sun b) river c) hills d) London. ⇰ d

6. The poet was (in) a —a) couch, b)car ,c) palanquin d) walking. ⇰a

7. The beauty of the morning was—a)loud and polluted, b) silent or bare c)loud and bare d)silent and bare. ⇰d

8. The time described here was—a) late morning b) afternoon c) evening d) early morning ⇰ d

9. The poet observes the scene from—a) forest b) hills c) road d) Westminster Bridge. ⇰d

10. Poet crossed the bridge with—a) his friends b) wife c) sister Dorothy d) Coleridge ⇰c

11. The poem describes the city of—a) Kolkata, b) London c)Paris d)New York ⇰b

12. A man who does not enjoy that beauty is a—a)clever b) dull c)busy d) blind ⇰b

13. The nature was filled with—a) fog b) smoke c) light d) darkness ⇰c

14. Here domes refers to the domes of—a)St. Paul’s Cathedral b)house c) factory d)church ⇰a

15. Here towers refer to the—a)mobile tower b) Tower of London c) CN tower d) Eiffel tower ⇰b

16. Ships, buildings etc are open to the—a)sky b)fields c)sea d)sky and fields ⇰d

17. The poet addressed the God in—a) fear b) joy c)gratitude d) excitement ⇰c

18. Themes is flowing—a)violently b) violently at his own will c) smoothly d)leapingly ⇰c

19. The sun steeped the—a) river b) Bridge c) ships d) valley, rocks and hills ⇰d

20. Earth has nothing to show more fair than—a) bridge b)River c)London d) hills ⇰c

21. This poem is a—a) Shakespearean sonnet, b) common sonnet c) Petrarchan sonnet d) irregular sonnet ⇰c





CHOOSE THE SYNONYM



22. Steep—a) Flow b)bathe/flooded/submerge c)blown away d) light ⇰b

23. Splendour—a) light b)excellent c)beauty d) sight ⇰a

24. Glideth— a) Flow b)bathe/flooded c)blown away d) light ⇰ a

25. Garment—a) valley b) light c)clothe d)wear ⇰c

26. Dull—a) great b)senseless c)large d) clever ⇰b

27. Glittering—a)darkness b)fading c)shining/sparkling d)cover ⇰c

28. Mighty—a) very large b)small c)God d) shiny ⇰a

29. Pass by—a)touch b) observe c) get d) ignore ⇰d

30. Majesty—a)mighty b)shiny c)grandeur d) objects ⇰c

31. Bare—a)open b)covered c)nature d)large ⇰a

32. Sweet—a)tasty b)bound c)boundless d)will ⇰ c

33. Earth—a) dull b)field c)world d)nature ⇰c



CHOOSE THE ANTONYMS



34. Fair—a)ugly b)nice c)funny d)small ⇰a

35. Bare— a)open b)covered c)nature d)large ⇰b

36. Bright—a)darkness b)clear c)glittering d)light ⇰a

37. Deep—a)shallow b) above c)great d)calm ⇰a

38. Silent—a)bare b)loud c)solitary d) calm ⇰ b

39. Calm—a) pleasure b) big c) noisy d)silent ⇰ c



FILL IN THE BLANKS 

40. Earth has not anything to _______more fair. (a. get b. show c. give d. mean ) ⇰b

41. Dull would he be of_______ who could pass by (a. mind b. nature c. birth d. soul ) ⇰d

42. ______ would he be of soul who could pass by (a. clever b. blind c. dull d. cool) ⇰c

43. A sight so touching in its ______ (a. beauty, b. majesty c. sight d. glory ) ⇰b

44. The beauty of the_________; silent, bare (a. evening b. morning c. night d. afternoon) ⇰b

45. In his first ________, valley, rock, or hill; (a. light, b. vision c. splendour d. sight ) ⇰c

46. Ne'er saw I, never felt, a calm so ________!(a. little, b. huge, c. deep d. lonely ) ⇰c

47. And all that mighty heart is _______ still! (a. lying b. going c. beating d. glittering) ⇰a





GET MORE SHORT QUESTIONS
AND MCQs OF CLASS -XI



ALL SHORT QUESTION OF "UPON WESTMINSTER BRIDGE"


Westminster Bridge


1. What is sonnet? What is personification?
The term sonnet has come from the Italian word ‘sonetto’, which means "little song". Sonnet is a type of poem that basically contains fourteen lines and follows a strict rhyme scheme and specific structure.
Personification is a figure of speech in which an inanimate object or abstraction is given human qualities or abilities. 
 

2. Who wrote this poem and when? 
William Wordsworth wrote this poet in 31 July, 1802.

2. Where was this poem published and when? 
⇰ This poem was published in “Poems in two Volumes” in 1807.


3. What kind of poem is it?
⇰ It is a sonnet.
 
4. From where did the poet observe the scene? 
⇰ From the Westminster Bridge.


5. Which river is mentioned here? 
Themes River.

6. What was the time? 
⇰ The time was early morning.


7. With whom did the poet cross the bridge? 
⇰ With his sister Dorothy.

8. Which scene is referred to here? 
⇰ The early morning scene of London is referred to here.


9. Where was the poet going? 
⇰ The port of Dover


10. What does the phrase ‘mighty heart’ refer? 
⇰ The phrase ‘mighty heart’ refers to the city of London.


11. Who glides at his own will? 
⇰ River Themes.


12. How is the river described here? 
⇰ The River Themes is flowing slowly at his own will.
 13. How was the air of London at that time? 
⇰ The air was smokeless and clear.
 
14. Which objects could the poet see from the bridge? 
⇰ Ships, domes, temples, theaters, towers.


15. How was the beauty of the morning? 
⇰ Silent and bare.


16. How do the houses seem? 
⇰ The houses seem asleep.


17. Why was the air smokeless? 
⇰ Because the morning was very early.


18. Who would be dull here? 
⇰ The man who would pass by without enjoying the beauty of nature, would be dull.


19. Who is Wearing morning’s beauty? 
⇰ The London city.

Discuss the significance of the title of the poem Upon Westminster Bridge.



The poet William Wordsworth observes the early morning scene of London from the Westminster Bridge. At that time the morning’s soft light fills the atmosphere. The poet declares that he has found the most beautiful scene. The city seems to wear morning's beauty. Ships, temples, domes, theatres, towers all are in quietness and “open unto the fields and to the sky”. There is no fog to obscure the view. The speaker compares the sunlight on the buildings to the light that shines on the countryside. And now he feels more peace in the bustling city than in the countryside. The River Thames moves slowly with soft murmur beneath him. In a burst of emotion, he pictures the city as blissfully asleep before another busy day. Poet thinks that, he might have not observed that incomparable beauty of nature if he does not observe the scene from the Westminster Bridge. So, the bridge enables the poet to produce such a fine poetry. So the title of this poem is very much appropriate.

Give the substance of the poem Upon Westminster Bridge. OR, Give a description of London city described in the poem "Upon Westminster Bridge". OR, “A sight so touching in its majesty”—Describe the sight.



While crossing the Westminster Bridge, the poet William Wordsworth, lover of nature and solitude, is very much impressed by the purity and calmness of the nature in the early morning. He declares that the scene of London is the most beautiful scene he has ever seen. He thinks that as if the city is wearing the morning’s beauty—“This City now doth like a garment wear”. The full city is stepped in morning’s soft light. There is neither any fog in the atmosphere nor any vehicle on the road. Ships temples, domes, theaters, towers all are in quietness and “open unto the fields and to the sky”. The valley, rock, hill all are glittering in the soft light. But now those are not as beautiful as London’s morning’s beauty. The river Themes flows slowly “at his own sweet will”. The poet portraits the London city so magnificently as if it is blissfully sleeping before another busy day.



Saturday, September 22, 2018

ALL DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS ON "MEETING AT NIGHT" BY ROBERT BROWNING

Explain the lines: “ As I gain the cove with pushing prow / And quench its speed in the slushy sand”





       
        In the poem ‘Meeting at Night’ by Robert Browning, the lover makes a nocturnal journey through the sea only to meet his beloved. After crossing the sea he reaches the cove at the sea-shore. The word ‘quench’ means ‘stop’ or ‘satisfy’. After reaching the shore, the lover stops his boat’s speed in the soft and wet sand. This fact also may be interpreted in this way that the lover was very much thirsty to meet his ladylove. And his reaching the sea-shore slightly satisfies his thirst as the shore is not far from the ladylove’s farmhouse. The phrase “I gain the cove” may also mean that the lover wants to possess her beloved physically and as if he has been successful in his mission.


Describe the meeting at firm house. / Describe the reaction of the lovers after meeting./(EXPLANATION OF LAST 4 LINES of the poem)


Farm house


       In the poem ‘Meeting at Night’ the poet Browning presents two mysterious lovers’ meeting at night in a dramatic way. The mysterious lover makes a long journey through out the sea, beach, fields to meet his beloved. Ultimately he reaches at the farm house where his beloved lives. Then he gives “a tap at the pane” as a previously fixed indication to his beloved. Immediately response comes from the farm house, a scratching sound is heard and the beloved lights a match. They both are in fears and joy—fears for their secret union in night and joy for the success of their reunion. A hushed voice, uttered by the beloved, invites the victorious lover. They come so much close that their hearts are beating each other and the sounds of their heart-beats become louder than the hushed voice uttered by them.


Briefly give a description of the nature described in the poem ‘Meeting at Night’.




The poet Robert Browning fantastically gives a fine description of the nature at night while describing the journey of a lover. The poem starts with the description of landscape—“The grey sea and the long black land”. At that time the moon is either rising or setting as it is "low" on the horizon line. The moon looks half and yellow. The waves are tossing their heads in fiery ringlets as if they have been risen from sleep by the movement of the boat in the sea-water. Then the lover reaches on the slushy shore. The poet describes the sea-beach as “warm sea-scented beach” which the lover has to cross. Thus Browning picturizes the nature in this poem.

Give the substance of the poem ‘Meeting at Night’. OR Describe how the speaker reaches his destination.



                 

Browning’s poem ‘Meeting at Night’ is a romantic poem tells us how to make love and relationship. The poem starts with the description of landscape, sea and the moon. At night to meet his beloved, the lover first makes a journey through the sea with a boat. After reaching at the shore, he walks a mile through the “warm sea-scented beach”. Then he crosses three fields and ultimately his destination, the farm where his beloved lives, comes in front of him. He gives “a tap at the pane”. The ladylove responds by a hushed voice and lights a match. Their hearts feel with fears and joys. Also they are so much excited that the sounds of their heart-beats become louder than the hushed voice uttered by them. 

MCQs OF "MEETING AT NIGHT" BY ROBERT BROWNING




1. This poem was written by— a) Wordsworth b) Robert Browning c) Keats d) Blake. ⇰ b

2. Meeting at Night is a 
a) elegy b) sonnet c) love lyric d) epic ⇰ c

3. This poem was published in—a) Lyrical ballad b) magazine c) Sordello d) Dramatic Romances and Lyrics. ⇰ d

4. This poem was published in—a) 1843 b) 1844 c) 1845 d) 1846 ⇰ c

5. The sea was—a) black b) grey c) yellow d) white ⇰ b

6. The land was—a) black b) grey c) yellow d) white ⇰ a

7. The moon was—a) black b) grey c) yellow d) white ⇰ c

8. The moon was—a) small and low b) small and high c) large and high d) large and low . ⇰ d

9. The meeting was made
—a)openly b)forcefully c) in day time d) secretly . ⇰ d

10. The lover/speaker makes the journey to—a) discover the farm b) fight c) get money d) meet his beloved . ⇰d

11. After meeting the lovers were in
—a) sorrow b) excitement c) wonder d) fun . ⇰ b

12. The beloved lives in a—a) farm b) cottage c) house d) palace . ⇰a

13. The sea beach was—a)one mile wide b) two miles wide c) three miles wide d) three miles wide ⇰a

14. The beloved crosses—a)one field b) two fields c)three fields d) four fields . ⇰ c

15. The lover crossed the sea with/by—a) steamer b) boat c) swimming d) ship . ⇰b

16. ‘quench’ means—a) drink b) lie c)to stop d) satisfy . ⇰ c

17. The lovers were in—a) joy b) fear c) fun d) fear and joy . ⇰d

18. ‘slushy’ means—a) full of water b) loose c) full of scent d) hard . ⇰b

19. The lover made a
—a) crying sound b) loud voice c) hushed voice d) clear sound . ⇰ c

20. Who gives a tap at the pane?— a) speaker/lover b) poet c) beloved d) none of them . ⇰ a

21. The speaker makes the journey to reach at—a)garden b)sea-shore c) farm house d) fields . ⇰c

22. “a voice less loud”—the voice is of the—a) lover b) poet c) beloved d) wind . ⇰c

23. The beloved lights a—a)torch b)match c)fire d) nothing . ⇰b

24. After crossing sea, lover crosses—a)fields b)beach c)road d)forest . ⇰b

25. To show his presence the lover —a) whistles b) sings c) gives tap at the pane d) lights a match . ⇰c

26. ‘gain’ means—a)get b)depart c)reach d)obtain ⇰ c

27. Robert Browning is a/an—a) Elizabethan, b)Victorian c) Modern, d)pre-Romantic poet. ⇰ b

28. Speaker’s journey was—a)secret, b)adventurous, c) troublesome, d) above all ⇰ d

29. Browning is famous for—a)ode, b)dramatic monologue, c)tragedy, d)comedy ⇰ b



FILL IN THE BLANKS 

30. The _____________ sea and the long black land (a.white, b.grey, c. green, d. red) . ⇰b

31. As I gain the _______ with pushing prow (a. land, b. shore, c. cove,) . ⇰c

32. And a ____________ spurt of a lighted match. (a. black, b. grey, c. yellow, d .blue ) ⇰ d

33. Then a mile of _________ sea-scented beach. (a. cool, b. warm, c. slushy, d. dry) ⇰b

34. And quench its speed in the _________sand. (a. cool, b. warm, c. slushy, d. dry) ⇰ c

35. The waves are leaping in__________ ringlets (a. free, b .fiery, c. fleshy, d. yellow) ⇰b

36. Three fields to cross till a _________ appears (a. garden, b. beach, c. form, d. farm) ⇰d

37. The ______ little waves. (a. joyous, b. cute, c. puzzled, d. startled) ⇰d


CHOOSE SYNONYM 

38. Prow— a) sand ,b) back part of boat, c) grey d) front part of boat ⇰d

39. Leap— a)lip, b) jump c) leaf, d) free ⇰b

40. Quench— a)stop , b) satisfy, c)speed, d) soft ⇰ a

41. Black— a)deep, b)dark, c) evil, d) green ⇰b

42. Slushy— a)hard ,b)soft and watery, c) long ⇰b

43. Fiery— a)fair, b) like fire, c)fear, d) jump ⇰b

44. Cove— a)cave, b)sheltered place in forest c)pond , d) sheltered place at shore ⇰ d


CHOOSE OPPOSITE

45. Sharp— a) smooth, b) blunt, c) startle d) hard ⇰ b

46. Loud— a)voiced, b)silent , c)clear, d) load⇰ b

47. Quick— a)fast, b)quiet, c)slow, d)early ⇰ c

48. Gain— a)depart, b)reach, c)come, d)travel⇰ a

49. Appear— a)vanish, b) see, c)low, d) short ⇰ a

THANKS FOR VISITING

ABOUT THE POEM & POET




ABOUT THE POEM "MEETING AT NIGHT"


PUBLICATION: 
IN "DRAMATIC ROMANCES AND LYRICS" IN 1845


ORIGINAL NAME OF POEM:
I NIGHT, II MORNING


TYPE OF POEM:
LOVE LYRICS


SUMMARY OF THE POEM: 
Browning’s poem ‘Meeting at Night’ is a romantic poem tells us how to make love and relationship. The poem starts with the description of landscape, sea and the moon. At night to meet his beloved, the lover first makes a journey through the sea with a boat. After reaching at the shore, he walks a mile through the “warm sea-scented beach”. Then he crosses three fields and ultimately his destination, the farm where his beloved lives, comes in front of him. He gives “a tap at the pane”. The ladylove responds by a hushed voice and lights a match. Their hearts feel with fears and joys. Also they are so much excited that the sounds of their heart-beats become louder than the hushed voice uttered by them.


CHARACTERS:

POET AND HIS BELOVED


ABOUT THE POET


Friday, September 21, 2018

SHORT QUESTIONS ON "MEETING AT NIGHT" BY ROBERT BROWING




1. Who is the writer of the poem Meeting at Night? ⇰ Robert Browning

2. Where was the poem published? ⇰ Dramatic Romances and Lyrics.

3. What is the original name of this poem? ⇰ “I Night, II Morning” .

4. What is the name of the 2nd part of original poem?
⇰ “Parting at Morning”

5. What kind of poem is it? ⇰ it is a love lyric or dramatic romance.

6. Who wants to meet and with whom? ⇰ The speaker wants to meet with his beloved.

7. What was the time? ⇰ It was night.

8. How was the sea and land? ⇰ The sea was grey and the land was dark.

9. How was the moon and where?
⇰ The moon was half and yellow on the horizon line.

10. How were the waves leaping? ⇰ The waves were leaping in fiery ringlets.

11. What do you mean by ‘quench’? ⇰Quench means reduce or stop.

12. What did the speaker cross? ⇰ The speaker crossed sea, sea-beach and three fields.

13. How were the lover and the beloved? ⇰ They were in joy and fear.

14. How were their voices? ⇰ The voices were less loud than the sounds of their heart-beat.

15. What is cove?
⇰ Cove is a small sheltered place at bay.

16. What do you mean by ‘slushy sand’? ⇰ It means soft and wet sand.

17. How was the sea beach? ⇰ The beach was warm the sea-scented.

18. Who gives a tap at the pane? ⇰ The lover gives a tap at the pane.

19. Who lights a match?
⇰ The beloved lights a match.

20. Where did the lover’s boat stop?
⇰The lover’s boat stopped at the cove.

21. Where does the beloved live?
⇰ In a farm house.


LIST OF POEMS, CLASS- XI (WBCHSE)


LIST OF POEMS (XI)

Click on the below links to get questions and answers





1. MEETING AT NIGHT : ROBERT BROWNING

2. UPON WESTMINSTER BRIDGE : WILLIAM WORDSWORTH
         πŸ‘‰MCQ Practice Set-1
         πŸ‘‰MCQ Practice Set-2

3. THE SICK ROSE : WILLIAM BLAKE
  • About the Poem and Author


4. BROTHERHOOD : OCTAVIO PAZ
  • MCQ Type Quesions and Answers


5. DAYBREAK : H. W. LONGFELLOW
  • MCQ Type Quesions and Answers

ABOUT THE TEXT & AUTHOR (KARMA)

ABOUT THE TEXT "KARMA"

PUBLICATION: 

IN "THE COLLECTED STORIES" IN 1989

SUMMARY AND THEME:

In Karma by Khushwant Singh we have the theme of self-importance, heritage, control, insecurity, shame, identity and acceptance. Narrated in the third person by an unnamed narrator the reader realises after reading the story that Singh may be exploring the theme of self-importance. Sir Mohan Lal considers himself to be better than others. Particularly other Indians. It is as though Lal has forgotten or abandoned his heritage and culture in favour of taking on the role of an Englishman. Though Lal has only spent five years in England he has adopted the ways of an Englishman and appears to be somewhat arrogant. Something that is noticeable by Lal’s desire to travel first class away from other Indians including his wife. Who does not appear to have adopted the same traits as her husband. If anything Lady Lal feels comfortable in her surroundings and does not seem to mind the position she finds herself in. Which may leave some readers to suggest that Lady Lal unlike Sir Lal accepts that she is Indian. She has no interest in adopting the culture of an English person and feels at home at the train station and on the train. Something that is noticeable by her chewing on the betel leaves.
Lal’s relationship with Lady Lal is also interesting as he appears to completely control her. The first class compartments are only meant for English people and though Lal considers himself English. He doesn’t consider Lady Lal to be English. It is as though Lal considers his wife to be subservient to him and as such she must travel in the general compartment and not first class. Though it might be worth noting that Lady Lal is content in the general compartment of the train. There is also a sense that Lal is ashamed to be Indian. It is as though he considers Indian people to be inferior and as such he has taken on the persona of an English person. Lal’s use of The Times newspaper is also interesting as he seems to use it as a device to highlight to others how intelligent he may be. It is as though Lal is attempting to change his identity by portraying himself to be something that he is not (an Englishman). Rather than being proud of his achievements and still maintain his nationality or original identity. Lal endeavours to change himself completely. Forgetting his roots and favouring the habits of Englishmen.
If anything it would seem that the most important thing to Lal is to give off the impression to others that he is an Englishman. That he is a man of substance (in his eyes). Unfortunately Lal’s appearance lets him down. Something that is noticeable by the fact that the two English soldiers throw Lal out of the first class compartment because in their eyes he is an Indian and as such should not be in first class. This too may be important as Singh may be highlighting the effects of colonialism on Indian society. Just as Lal considers himself better than Lady Lal. Many English people considered themselves better than Indians. In many ways some readers might suggest that Lal got what he deserved. He is after all an imposter who considers himself better than not only his wife but his fellow countrymen. It is also possible that Lal is insecure about the fact that he is really an Indian and sees no virtue in being an Indian. Whereas many of his countrymen would be proud of where they came from and would not wish to shift their identity.
What is interesting about the end of the story is the fact that Lal is left alone on the platform when the train moves off. Symbolically this could be important. In life it is important to try and keep moving forward. This is something that Lal does not do. He is firmly rooted to the platform yet Lady Lal remains on the train. It is possible that Singh is suggesting that should an individual abandon their heritage or culture as Lal does they are only fooling themselves. It may not be possible for a person to transform their identity into something else due to the actions of others (two soldiers). A person will be judged by their appearance and as Lal did not look like an Englishman to the two soldiers he was removed from the first class compartment. The reader assured that the only injury that Lal would have received is that his pride may have been wounded. The reader is also aware that if Lal had been proud of his own heritage not only would he have not ostracized Lady Lal but he would not have encountered the difficulties he did with the two soldiers. Unfortunately Lal’s belief in his own self-importance is a stumbling block. Which may leave the reader suspecting that Singh is suggesting that an individual should be proud of who they are and not adopt another country’s behaviours and habits as their own.

CHARACTERS:

1. MOHAN LAL
2. LACHMI
3. BEARER
4. COOLIE
5. TWO ENGLISH SOLDIERS

****************************************************************


ABOUT THE AUTHOR





SHORT QUESTIONS ON "KARMA" BY KHUSHWANT SINGH


Lachmi

1. Who was the writer of the prose Karma?
* Khushwant Singh is the writer of the prose Karma.

2. Where was this published and when?
* This prose was published in 1989 in “The Collected Stories”.

3. Who was Mohan Lal?
* Mohan Lal, the main character of the story ‘Karma’, was a middle aged, arrogant man who always followed the British culture.

4. What was the name of Lady Lal?

* The name of Lady Lal was Lachmi.

5. Where was Mohan Lal found for the first time in the story?
* Mohan Lal was found for the first time in the first class waiting room of railway compartment.

6. How was the mirror in the waiting room?
* The mirror in the waiting room was partly broken and the red oxide at its back had come off at several places.

7. For what was Saville Row famous?
* Saville Row , a shopping street in Central London, was famous for making suits.

8. What is “eau de cologne”?
* “Eau de cologne” is a perfume produced in Cologne, Germany.

9. Which college did Mohan Lal’s tie belong to?
* Mohan Lal’s tie belonged to Balliol college, a college under Oxford University.

10. “Koi hai!”—Who said this and to whom and why?
* Mohan Lal said this to the bearer for a peg of hard drinks.

11. What was Mohan Lal doing in the waiting room?
* In the waiting room Mohan Lal was examining the mirror and then he looked at himself at the mirror.

12. Where was Lachmi sitting?
* Lachmi was sitting outside the first class waiting room on a steel trunk.

13. What was Lachmi doing outside the waiting room?
* Outside the waiting room sitting on a steel trunk, Lachmi was chewing betel leaf and fanning herself with a newspaper.

14. Describe Lachmi and her dress?
* Lachmi was short, fat, native woman and in middle forties. She wore a dirty white sari with red border and had several ornaments on her body.

15. Whom was Lachmi talking with?
*Lachmi was talking with a bearer whom Mohan Lal called for.

16. What is zenana?
* Zenana is middle class train compartment only reserved for ladies.

17. Where did Lachmi stop while following the coolie and why?
* While following the coolie, Lachmi stopped on the way by a hawker’s stall to replenish her silver betel leaf case.

18. What did Lachmi eat before the train’s arrival?
* Before the train’s arrival, Lachmi ate a bundle of cramped chapattis and mango pickles.

19. “I am with my master, brother.”—Who said this? Who was the ‘brother’? Who was the ‘master’?
*Lachmi said this. Here ‘brother’ referred to the collie. Here ‘master’ referred to Mohan Lal.

20. What was Mohan Lal’s profession?
* Mohan Lal was a vizer and a barrister by profession.

21. Where did Lachmi and Mohan Lal live?
* Lachmi lived in the upper storey and Mohan Lal lived on the ground floor.

22. Why did Lachmi’s relative not come to her husband’s house?
* Lachmi’s relative did not come to her husband’s house because her husband Mohan Lal did not like her poor illiterate relatives hanging around bungalow.

23. In which compartment did Lachmi travel and why?
* Lachmi travelled in the inter class zenana compartment as she was a native woman and she did not know upper classes’ culture.

24. Why did Lachmi thank God?
*Lachmi thanked God for giving her the favour of finishing her meal.

25. “Lachmi chatted away merrily”—Whom did Lachmi chat away with and what was the reason behind her merriment?
* Lachmi chatted away merrily with coolie. She was happy to chat as she got none to speak in her house.

26. How much rupees did Lachmi give to the coolie?
* Lachmi gave the coolie a two-anna bit.

27. Where did Lachmi use to put her rupees?
* Lachmi used to put her rupees in the knot in her sari.

28. How did Lachmi prepare her two betel leaves? Where did she sit in the compartment?
* Lachmi prepared two betel leaves charged with a red and white paste, minced betel nuts and cardamoms.

29. “You are a bit of alright, old chap”—Who is referred to as ‘old chap’?

* Here ‘old chap’ refers to Sir Mohan Lal.

30. What was Mohan Lal doing when the train arrived?
* When the train arrived, Mohan Lal was drinking scotch and and was relaxing.

31. What is meant by “tickety-boo”?

* “Tickety-boo” means “in good order”.

32. What was Mohan Lal fond of?
* Mohan Lal was fond of conversation on any matter like books, politics etc.

33. “I have finished with it”—What does ‘it’ refer?
* Here ‘it’ refers to “The Times”.

34. What for did Mohan Lal become dismayed after entering the compartment?
* After entering the compartment Mohan Lal became dismayed to see no Englishmen there.

35. What were the soldiers carrying on their back?
* The soldiers were carrying on their back their haversacks.

36. Give the names of two English soldiers.
* The names of two English soldiers were Jim and Bill.

37. How was the five years of abroad of Mohan Lal?
* The five years of abroad of Mohan Lal was crowed and glorious and far worthy than his time in India.

38. By which name did the soldiers call the Mohan Lal?
* Soldiers called Mohan Lal a nigger.

39. What was soldier’s point of view to get Mohan Lal out of the compartment?

* Soldiers got Mohan Lal out as according to them, the compartment was reserved only for the army men.

40. In which compartment were the soldiers entitled to travel?
* The soldiers were entitled in second class compartment to travel.

41. What is meant by “toodle oo!”?
* “Toodle oo!” means “see you later”.

42. How did the soldiers throw Mohan Lal from compartment?
* The soldiers threw Mohan Lal from compartment by arm and flung him out of the train. He reeled backwards, tripped on his beddings and landed of the suitcase.





ABOUT AUTHOR & THE TEXT (LEELA'S FRIEND)

ABOUT THE TEXT (LEELA'S FRIEND)

PUBLICATION :

IN 1942 IN MALGUDI DAYS

SUMMARY & THEME

In Leela’s Friend by R.K. Narayan we have the theme of injustice, class, acceptance, innocence, friendship and change. Taken from his Malgudi Days collection the story is narrated in the third person by an unnamed narrator and after reading the story the reader realises that Narayan may be exploring the theme of injustice. Sidda is wrongly accused of stealing Leela’s chain and despite his plea of innocence he knows that Leela’s parents do not believe him. The only recourse that Sidda feels he has is to run away. This may be important as Narayan may be suggesting that servants and their word meant very little to those who employed servants. Without any evidence Leela’s mother and father blame Sidda for robbing the chain. Should things of being different and Sidda  was not a servant the reader suspects that the same course of action (of calling the police) would not have been taken. So deep is the gap in class between Sidda and Leela’s parents that Sidda knows that he will not be believed hence his running away. Which is the only option available to Sidda. He knows that it is his word against Leela’s parents. Even though there is no proof that Sidda stole the chain.
The fact that Sidda is not believed by Leela’s parents or the police may be important as it not only suggests that the issue of class is playing a part in Leela’s arrest but social order too is playing its part. Sidda is at the bottom of the ladder when it comes to social order. He is a poor servant who in many ways is voiceless due to his circumstances. Something that is noticeable when the police bring Sidda to Leela’s parent’s home. Sidda does not say anything. He accepts that others have found him guilty and that there is nothing he can do about it. He knows that though nobody can prove it was him who took the chain. This matters very little. He will be charged by the police and he will go to prison. The rights afforded to others who are more socially mobile are not afforded to Sidda. It may also be a case that Narayan is exploring the theme of innocence. Through Leela’s youth Narayan seems able to highlight to the reader just how naive and innocent Leela is when it comes to matters of the world. She believes that Sidda is friends with the moon and that the moon is following them. If anything Sidda intrigues Leela and she becomes friendlier with him as time passes.
It is also noticeable that Leela is the only one who believes Sidda has not stolen the chain. However neither of Leela’s parents take this on board. They are adamant that Sidda is a thief. Which may be important as Narayan may be exploring the theme of identity through each characters appraisal of Sidda being a thief. If anything it is a case of mistaken identity. Sidda has proved to be an honest and hardworking employee during his time with Leela’s parents. He has never gotten into trouble and he has done everything that has been asked of him by Leela’s parents. In reality Sidda has let nobody down yet he himself has been let down by Leela’s parents and the police. It is also interesting that Leela’s mother is unable to fill the role that Sidda has left behind. Something the reader is aware of by Leela’s mother being unable to tell Leela a bedtime story. If anything Sidda has been underestimated and under appreciated by Leela’s parents. He and his work have been taken for granted.
The end of the story is also interesting as Narayan appears to be exploring the theme of change. Rather than allowing Sidda to have his job back the best that Leela’s father can do is make sure that the police do not press charges against Sidda. This may be important as Leela’s father is judging Sidda on information supplied to him by the police. According to the police Sidda is a known criminal yet he committed no crime while in Leela’s parent’s home. Rather than giving him a second chance in life. The best that Leela’s father can do is tell the police that they have found the chain. There is no sense that anybody is prepared to apologise to Sidda. Due to his background he is a marked man. Though again he is innocent of the crime that he was charged with. If anything the two people who will suffer the most in the story are Sidda and Leela. Sidda in all likelihood is trying to break free of his past and live an honest life and Leela has lost a friend who she holds very dear. A friend who has lit up her mind and fired up her imagination. Leela spent her days with Sidda and they grew close. As to what will happen Sidda is difficult to say. He will no longer be employed by Leela’s parents and he might find it difficult to find a new job without having any reference.

CHARACTERS:

1. LEELA
2. SIDDA
3. MR. SIVASANKER
4. MRS. SIVASANKER (KAMALA)

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ABOUT THE WRITER


ABOUT  R.K. NARAYAN


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